Fasicm and Tenents

 

Jaya Kosley

Hidayatullah National Law University, Raipur

 

 

INTRODUCTION:

Facism is one of the most important government strategies today, especially in develop regions; this fact would be very difficult for the educated ones to accept. The word fascism has been derived from the Italian word “fascio” which means bundle or group. Fascism is primarily used to identify the social, economic and political system that was established in Italy in 1922 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini and his fascist party. It is also used to identify a prototype of totalitarianism that had its equally vigorous manifestation in Germany after 1933 under the leader ship of Adolph Hitler and his Nazi Party. Though Nazism is the German version of Fascism, the common point is that both stand for the ideology of the totalitarianism of the right. Thus, it is defined as a “political attitude which puts the nation-state or race, its power and growth in the center of life and history. It disregards the individual and his rights, as well as humanity; it follows the lead of the totalitarian bolshevism as a single-party state with a strict regimentation of all aspects of national life.” 

 

Fascism is an ideology of the present century, which originally emerged as an Italian movement led by Mussolini. The very word ‘ fasciare’ means to bind or to envelope and for this reason, the movement was intended by its founders and is ardent followers as a doctrine that would bind, once and for all, the entire Italian nation into an organic entity so as to restore the great tradition of the ancient Roman Empire. The notable thing about Fascism is that it emerged as a movement and its social, economic and political philosophy appeared after about a couple of years at the hands of great theoreticians of this movement who occupied important positions in the Government of Prime Minister Mussolini. Its core was laid down by Alfredo Rocco( Mussolini’s Minister for Justice) who in 1925 produced his thesis on the ‘ Political Doctrines of Fascism’ in which he proved himself as a vigorous admirer of Machievelli and a supporter of the idea of the supreme power of the organic nation-state in the tradition of Hegel.

 

Tenets of Fascism are as follows:

1.      Irrationalismfacism rejects objectives, science, and reasons, life is so complex and unpredictable that it cannot be understood by ordinary people. Objective truth is either a hoax unimportant, because the really important truths defy rational understanding, being random facts with no logical relationship to one another.

 

Those who believe in reason, therefore, delude themselves and grasp at a false reality. Reason is barren intellectualism lacking the true meaning. The ordinary meaning is not fertile: it is waste land full of mirages that give only an illusion of reality.

 

2.     Totalitarianism- Mussolini created a totalitarian state not content with political power alone, he believed that the government, and ultimately the Governments leader should completely control every aspect of human existence. According to him as the cells of the body each contribute to a life greater than their own, so too the state becomes a living being with an importance of far beyond that of its individual members.

 




3.     Elitism: all human beings are not equal and that leaders in every society are the heros above all moral restraints. People are different in ability and intelligence. Some are stronger than others; some are smarter than their neighbors. Although the people vary greatly, they all have the same function to serve the state. Being unequal they make unequal contributions. Therefore, those who give the greatest service to the state. Should receive the greatest benefit. rejecting  democracy as a sham that weakens the society by encouraging incompetence to govern, Mussolini believed that there were only few people in any society who could govern well therefore each society should be ruled by a select elite.

 

4.     Corporativism: The corporate state was based on the foundation of worker and owner syndicates. Strikes and boycotts being illegal, the syndicates were supposed to settle disputes between management and labor. By the same token, prices, profit margins, production standards and all the like were set by the state leaving very few important decisions to the masses. But to be assured of absolute obedience at every level, the state appointed the heads of all the corporations, regional federations and syndicates.

 

5.     Nationalist Militarism: The higher purpose of the state is imperialism. As every nation must be ruled by elite, so the world as a while must be ruled by an elite. National wills are not equal. Superior nations must strive to dominate the poor, weak and backward peoples of the world. To shirk this responsibility is to deny the destiny of the nation, its rightful heritage, and thus warp the natural order of things. War itself is the primary goal of a society. Rather than something to be used only as a last resort, war is a spiritually creative and positive feature of life.

 

 

 

Received on 22.02.2012

Revised on   11.03.2012

Accepted on 21.03.2012

© A&V Publication all right reserved