Achieving Millennium Development Goals by 2015 in Bangladesh: Dream and Reality

 

Muhammad Ridwan Mostafa1*, Anwar Hossain Choudhury1, Swati Paul2, Dibyajyoti Saha2.

 

1Department of Sociology, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

2Department of Pharmacy, BGC Trust University Bangladesh, Chittagong.

 

 

ABSTRACT:

Bangladesh is the signatory country to implement Millennium Development Goals by 2015. Bangladesh has achieved remarkable success in eradicate poverty, primary education, gender equality and reduces child mortality. In all aspect of MDGs indicators, Bangladesh has revealed positive sign to meet the target.  By reviewing literature related to MDGs, this paper is an attempt to see the progress of MDGs in Bangladesh in terms of all MDGs Goals, and its indicators. This paper highlights that, whereas Bangladesh is on track and need attention for achieving MDGs.

 

KEY WORDS: Millennium Development Goals, Bangladesh, Progress, Status.

 

INTRODUCTION:

Bangladesh is the least developed countries in the world. Cureently ninth most populas country and the most densley populated of the world’s larger state, Bangladesh emerged from a bloody war of independence 40 years ago.Famously called a ‘basket case’ at the time, The country has since remarkable and unexpected advances in nearly every economic indicator. Today it stands as one of the so-called ‘next 11 countries, poised to become,after Brazil,Russia,India and China, one of the world’s largest economies in the world. 1

 

Bangladesh has made important gains in the fight against poverty. Derided as a basket-case only three decades ago, Bangladesh today is definitively out of the shadow of famine. Uniquely for a country facing an extremely vulnerable ecology, Bangladesh has established a credible record of sustained growth within a stable macroeconomic framework. At a comparatively low level of development, it has also earned the distinctions of a major decline in population growth rate and of graduating to the medium human development group of countries by UNDP’s ranking. 2

 

Bangladesh has experienced steady economic growth at a rate of approximately five percent annually during the past decade. Manufacturing of ready-made garments provides employment for over 2 million people, many of them women, and generates nearly 75 percent of the export earnings of the country. The discovery of substantial reserves of natural gas in Bangladesh could significantly boost the country's economy and the people's well-being if the reserves are managed carefully. Bangladesh has made impressive gains in the production of wheat and rice, the staple crop. It remains one of the few countries with the potential to grow three rice crops a year. 


While the last year has produced additional challenges, Bangladesh continues to work to become essentially self-sufficient in rice production. International as well as indigenous non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play a major role in delivering social services and poverty reduction programs. The two largest and best-known Bangladeshi NGOs are: Grameen Bank, known for its micro-credit programs; and Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC), with its range of development activities and non-formal primary schools.3 Bangladesh has achieved remarkable progress in MDGs Goals, basically reducing child mortality, empowering women and improving maternal health situation is radically changing in Bangladesh. In Bangladesh for implementing the MDG’s Goals many of Local NGOs, International NGOs, Government, Donor Agency, UN Organizations and peoples of Bangladesh are working together. Bangladesh is working to achieve MDGs Goals as well as formulate plan like Safety net program, Perspective plan for continuing its program. Therefore, we’ll explore in this paper what are the present status of Bangladesh in terms of all MDGs Goals and its indicators. Bangladesh changed the development strategy from PRSP to Sixth year plan and also initiated perspective plan to attainment Vision 2021 approach of present government. Bangladesh Government has signed to execute MDGs Goals for developing its all aspect of development indicators.

 

Overview of MDG:

Building on the United Nations global conference of 1990s, The United Nations Millennium Declaration of 2000 marked a strong commitment to right to development, to peace and security, to gender equality, to the eradication of many dimensions of poverty and to sustainable human development, Embedded in that declaration, which was adopted by 147 heads of state and 189 sates, were what become known as the   eight Millennium Development Goals4 The aim of the MDGs is to encourage development by improving social and economic conditions in the world's poorest countries.

 

Bangladesh has recorded impressive feats in pulling people out of poverty, ensuring that more children, girls and boys, attend school, and have access to clean water. Considerable progress has been made in child survival rate. Bangladesh is among the 16 countries who have received UN recognition for being on track to achieve MDG4. There have been some improvements to address the country’s massive environmental challenges over the past decade as well. 5

 

The Millennium Summit was presented with the report of the Secretary-General entitled ‘We the Peoples: The Role of the United Nations in the Twenty-First Century’. Additional input was prepared by the Millennium Forum, which brought together representatives of over 1,000 non-governmental and civil society organizations from more than 100 countries.6

 

The Secretary General presented the goals, targets and indicators to the general assembly in September 2001 in his report entitled ‘’Road map towards the implementation of the United Nations Millennium Declaration’’. Hence a framework of 8 goals, 18 targets and 48 indicators to measure progress towards the MDGs was adopted. However from January 2008, 21 targets and 60 indicators have been used to monitor the MDGs.7

 

Millennium Development Goals: The following 8 Goals for achieving MDGs by 2015:

1)       Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger

2)       Achieve Universal Primary Education

3)       Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

4)        Reduce Child Mortality

5)       Improve Maternal Health

6)       Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

7)       Ensure Environmental Sustainability

8)       Develop a Global Partnership for Development

 

Present Status of Bangladesh:

Bangladesh government has taken plan to achieve Millennium Development Goals by 2015, that’s why some goals already have achieved some are on track. After 40 years of independence, we can easily think about Bangladesh Development Strategy and its progress. In some indicators of development Bangladesh has lot of progress. Bangladesh is the homeland of Microcredit and has many things to be proud. Bangladesh is signatory country to achieve MDGs, therefore, let’s try to examine the present situation of MDGs in Bangladesh.

 

1)       Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger:

Bangladesh is the poorest countries in the world. Poverty and hunger situation is still severe problem of Bangladesh. Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in area of poverty and hunger.

Reduction in poverty and inequality is a fundamental challenge in Bangladesh. Prioritizing these, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represent an international commitment to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger and foster global collaboration for development by 2015, while Vision-2021 represents the commitments of the present government to reduce the rate of poverty to 25 percent and 15 percent by 2013 and 2021 respectively. These deadlines are looming and, soon it will be known whether these commitments have been achieved. Despite the large numbers of people living in poverty, the definition of poverty has been the subject of debate.


Table-1: Status of MDG Goal-1

Goals, Targets & Indicators

Base Year 1990/1991

Current Status(Source)

Target by 2015

Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger

Target 1.A: Halve between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people below poverty line

1.1: Proportion of population below 1$(PPP) per day, %,

68.80(1992)

49.60(UNSTATS 2005)

34.40

1.1a: Proportion of population below national upper poverty line(2122 Kcal)%

56.6(1992)

31.5

(HIES 2010)

29

1.2: Poverty Gap Ratio,%

17.0(1992)

6.5(HIES 2010)

8.0

1.3: Share of poorest quintile in national consumption,%

8.8(2005)

8.85(HIES 2010)

NA

1.3a: Share of poorest quintile in national income,%

6.5(1992)

5.2(HIES) 2010

-

1.B: Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all including, including women and young people.

1.4:Growth rate of GDP per person employed,%

1.11(1991)

3.76(WB 2008)

--

1.5: Employment to population ratio(15+),%

48.5

59.3(LFS 2010)

For all

1.6: Proportion of employed people living below $1 (PPP) per day

Data is not available

1.7: Proportion of own-account and contributing family workers in total employment.

Data is not available

1.C: Halve, between 1990 and 2015 , the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

1.8: Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age(6-59 months),%

66.0

45(BHFNSA 2009)

33.0

1.9: Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption(2122 kcal),%

48.0

40(HIES 2005)

24.0

1.9a: Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption(1805 kcal),%

28.0

19(HIES 2005)

14.0

Source: Millennium Development Goals, Bangladesh Progress Report 2011, p.13

 


The mainstream emerging sees poverty as generally being characterized by inability of individuals, households, or entire communities, to command sufficient resources to satisfy a socially acceptable minimum standard of living. The alternative view understands poverty as a part of social property relations. Inequality can be defined in terms of being the opposite of ‘equality’, a state of social organization that enables or gives equal access to resources and opportunities to all members.  Bangladesh has witnessed a modest progress in reducing poverty since the early 1990s. However, there is no room for complacency. Still, about one-third (31.5 percent) of its population is living below the so-called poverty line (BBS, 2010). Likewise many other countries, poverty is still a vital concern and challenge for Bangladesh. 8

 

According to above mentions data, we can easily find out the progress of poverty and hunger situation. Bangladesh already achieved the poverty gap ratio and also on track of reducing upper poverty line by 2015. Employment situation is not right position presently; still Bangladesh has enough time to work. Both of minimum level (2122 kcal & 1805 kcal) dietary energy consumption rate progress is not satisfactory. Everywhere food security conditions are alarming; basically Bangladesh has been faced many challenges for decades due to inflation, global financial crisis, political unrest and lack of good governance. Still Bangladesh has chance to achieve Goal 1 by 2015. Bangladesh Government has taken initiative to achieve this goal as well as Local NGOs, International Donor agencies are playing important role for eradicating extreme poverty and hunger. Bangladesh’s poverty reduction rate is on track, though poverty rate is still high in terms of developed countries situation. Bangladesh has many initiatives for reducing poverty such as Micro-Credit Program, Social Safety net program, donor agencies poverty reduction programs and Government’s Poverty Reduction strategies are functioning as well.

 

2)       Achieve Universal Primary Education

Education is the basic fundamental rights of human being. Life is process of learning, through learning from human society men are act their roles. ‘Education for all’ that is becoming popular slogan in Bangladesh, Bangladesh is achieved magnificent success in Primary Education. Presently Bangladesh Government has developed new education policy which is covered the principles of Bangladesh Constitution as well as modern education system. Dropout rate in primary education is reducing day by day but it is very essential for Bangladesh to prevent the drop out in primary education. Education for all is now widespread word everywhere in Bangladesh. Educational progress is visible; everywhere we see primary school, Kindergarten, and Secondary School & College. Education system is developing tremendously in Bangladesh. In South Asia Bangladesh’s position in education sector very much remarkable basically in primary education. MDGs goals in Education, Bangladesh present status rate is notable. That is the good sign for any developing countries like Bangladesh and others countries. In Bangladesh, many NGOs are working in education sector basically in primary education. BRAC is the pioneer in non formal primary education. Now BRAC’s model is replicating in many developing countries.


 

Table-2:  Status of MDG Goal-2

Goals, Targets & Indicators

Base Year 1990/1991

Current Status(Source)

Target by 2015

Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education

Target 2.A: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.

2.1: Net enrollment ratio in primary education,%

60.5

94.9

(BANBEIS 2010)

100

2.2: Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5,%

43.0

67.2(DPE 2010)

100

2.3a: adult literacy rate of 15+ years old population,%

37.2

58.4(SVRS-2009)

100

Source: Millennium Development Goals, Bangladesh Progress Report 2011, p.29.


 

Quality education is still challenge for Bangladesh. Bangladesh government has developed new education policy where primary education system has change class five to class eight. In MDGs 2 Bangladesh present status is now on tack, progressed rate is outstanding in primary education. Though dropout rate in primary education is creates problem in Bangladesh’s education system.

 

Bangladesh has made progress in net enrollment ratio in primary education, according to above mention data in 1990 net enrollment ratio in primary education was 60.5 presently this ratio is 94.9. Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 indicators is not remarkable. In 1990, this percentage was 43.0 and now this percentage is 67.02(DPE-2010). Bangladesh has to give more effort in this indicator and make out a solution for overcoming this problem. Adult literacy rate of 15+ years old population situation is also not satisfactory.

Bangladesh has lots of challenges for achieving universal primary education by 2015. Dropout rate (5 years cycle) in primary education is 34.9. 9

 

The Government of Bangladesh recognizes education as a means of reducing poverty and improving the quality of life for children. Therefore, Bangladesh Government has taken many initiatives in primary education such as Stipend program, Mid-day meal program etc. the ratio of girls enrollment in primary school has been increased since last decade. Parents are now conscious about children’s education and NGOs have magnificent intervention for improving primary education. BRAC has initiated Non-formal primary education as well as many NGOs are working now for improving primary education. Ensuring quality education for all is very challenge for Bangladesh still now. In Bangladesh adult literacy rate position also questionable.

 

3)       Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

Bangladesh has already achieved gender parity in primary and secondary education at the national level. This positive development has occurred due to some specific public interventions focusing on girl’s students, such as stipends and exemptions of tuition fees for girls in rural areas, and the stipend scheme for girls at the secondary level. It has made the significant progress in promoting the objectives of ensuring gender equality and empower of women. There has been steady improvement in the social and political empowerment scenario of women in Bangladesh.10

 

Bangladesh has scored higher than India, Pakistan and Afghanistan in terms of gender equity, according to the Gender Equity Index (GEI) 2012 released by Social Watch, a Manila-based civil society network. The report evokes mixed feelings. While taking pride in the fact that the country has secured a good position among South Asian countries with 55 points, we must keep in mind the better examples, where countries which have done well, such as Norway, Finland and Iceland, have scored in the high eighties. The index measures the gaps between women and men in the areas of education, economic and political empowerment.11

 

The common manifestations of violence against women in Bangladesh take different forms. Domestic violence, or perpetrated at home and in the family, is a major social problem in Bangladesh, to which women of all economic strata are vulnerable. Nearly half of the adult women are physically abused by their husbands, according to a survey.


Table-3: Status of MDG Goal-3

Goals, Targets & Indicators

Base Year 1990/1991

Current Status(Source)

Target by 2015

Goal 3: Promoting Gender Equality & Empowering Women

Target 3.A: Eliminate gender disparity primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and in all level of education no later than 2015

3.1: Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education

3.1a: Ratio of girls to boys in primary education

0.83

1.02(BANBEIS 2010)

1.0

3.3b: Ratio of girls to boys in secondary education

0.52

1.14(BANBEIS 2010)

1.0

3.3c: Ratio of girls to boys in tertiary education

0.37

0.39(BANBEIS2010)

1.0

2.2: Share of women in wage employment in the non agricultural sector,%

19.1

19.87(LFS 2010)

50

2.3: Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament,%

12.7

19.71(MOWCA 2011)

33

Source: Millennium Development Goals, Bangladesh Progress Report 2011, p.37.


Table-4: Status of MDG Goal-4

Goals, Targets & Indicators

Base Year

 1990/1991

Current Status(Source)

Target by 2015

Goal 4: Reducing Child Mortality

Target 4.A: Reduce by two third , between 1990 and 2015,the under five mortality rate

4.1: Under-five Mortality Rate (per 1000 live births)

146

50 (SVRS 2009)

48

4.2: Infant Mortality Rate (per 1000 live births)

92

39(SVRS 2009)

31

4.3: Proportion of one year children immunized  against measles,%

54

85.3(USED2010)

100

Source: Millennium Development Goals, Bangladesh Progress Report 2011, p.47.

 


Greed and commercialization of marriage have prompted dowry related violence and dowry related violence and even ‘’ dowry-killing’’. Incidence of rape or physical violations of women particularly injurious to a woman’s self esteem and her physical and psychological and apparently is rising. 12

 

However, Women are victim by their husband but their raising voice against discrimination as well as women rights. Ratio girls and boys in primary and secondary education sectors Bangladesh met the target. Bangladesh’s need attention in tertiary education basically. In tertiary education, Bangladesh progress rate is not outstanding. The Women seats in National parliament of Bangladesh are not satisfactory due to women’s weakness in politics of Bangladesh.  NGOs have great achievement for promoting gender equality and empowering women. Bangladesh is homelands of Microcredit for this reason woman are aware about superstition, education, health problem and they are conscious about basic rights. NGOs are playing great roles in gender equality side by side Government of Bangladesh has taken lots of positive initiative such as reserve women seats in parliament and local government, free education up to degree level, stipend program. Basically in Bangladesh RMG sector is the highest earning sector and most of the workers are women but they are not get flexible wages. Still Bangladesh has gender inequality in Education specifically higher education, Health, Employment and politics. It is matter of joy that both prime minister and opposition leader of Bangladesh are women.  Both are ruling Bangladesh since 1991. Women Empowerment still not so good position in Bangladesh. Gender gap is very high in higher education and senior level job in Bangladesh.

 

4)       Reduce Child Mortality:

Over recent decades, Bangladesh has made substantial advancements in the health status of the population. Life expectancy at birth has increased. Maternal, infant and child mortality rates have declined. And immunization coverage has remained fairly high. Despite these improvements, much still remains to be done to improve people’s health condition.

 

Serious health problems persist in Bangladesh. Poor nutrition represents a major health problem. Anaemia among women of child bearing age is extremely high. Diarrhoeal diseases are still a major killer-despite being easily treatable with known medical help. Communicable and poverty-related diseases that are preventable continue to remain among the top ten causes of mortality. Complications during pregnancy and childbirth are a leading cause of death and disability among women of reproductive age.

 

Skilled birth attendants are present at only one-fifth of all births. This figure is even lower in slums and tribal areas. More than 80 per cent of deliveries take place at home. Traditional birth attendants assist three-quarters of births in Bangladesh. Only 18 per cent of women receive post-natal care.

 

The situation is even worse in the lowest quintile of the population. Among those seeking care, the proportion of those choosing unqualified or traditional providers is relatively high (63 per cent). Furthermore, the proportion of sick people going to a public provider is significantly lower (14 per cent) than those going to private providers. 13

 

Bangladesh has made tremendous progress in reducing child mortality. Basically EPI program, awareness of Government family planning program, health facilities in grassroots level as well as NGOs program make up the progress in reducing child mortality.

 

In indicators of Under-Five mortality rate Bangladesh has been made remarkable success in 1990 this rate was 146 and current status is 50, and target is 48 by 2015. Therefore, in this areas Bangladesh already achieved the target. In 1990, Infant Mortality rate was 92 per 1000 live births presently this rate is 39 and Bangladesh exceed the target line. In MDG 4 goals Bangladesh progress outstanding against the timeline. Bangladesh is already achieved the MDG 4 goal and received UN MDG award for reducing child mortality.

 

5)       Improve Maternal Health:

Maternal, infant and child mortality rates have declined sharply in Bangladesh as a least developed country it’s a great achievement for Bangladesh.

 


Table-5: Status of MDG Goal-5

Goals, Targets & Indicators

Base Year 1990/1991

Current Status(Source)

Target by 2015

Goal 5:Improve Maternal Health

Target 5.A: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015,The Maternal Mortality Ratio

5.1: Maternal Mortality Ratio (per 100,000 live births)

574

194(BMMS 2010)

143

5.2: Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel,%

5.0

26.5(BMMS2010)

50

5.B: Achieve by 2015,universal access to reproductive health

5.3:Contreaceptive Prevalence Rate,%

39.7

61.7(UESD 2010)

72

5.4:  Adolescent Birth Rate, (per 1000 women)

77

105(BMMS 2010)

-

5.5: Antenatal Care Coverage (at least one visit and at least four visit)%

5.a: Antenatal Care Coverage at least one visit,%

27.5(1993)

71.2(BMMS 2010)

100

5.b: Antenatal Care Coverage at least four visit,%

5.5(1993)

23.4(BMMS 2010)

100

5.6:Unmet need for family  planning,%

19.4(1993)

17.1(BDHS 2007)

7.6

Source: Millennium Development Goals, Bangladesh Progress Report 2011, p.55.

 


Improve maternal Health is the 5 goal of MDGs. Safe Motherhood is very important for any pregnant women.

 

The Safe Motherhood Initiative (SMI) has adopted comprehensive steps to reduce maternal mortality by incorporating (1) provision of family planning services, (2) improvement in the socio-economic status of the women, (3) provision of safe legal abortion services, (4) provision of pre-natal care, (5) improvement in EOC, (6) training of TBA, and (7) education and mobilization of the community in its strategy.14

 

Bangladesh government is more or less adopted this strategy for improving maternal health. Bangladesh is trying to overcome maternal health problem since 80s. After signing MDGs charter Bangladesh’s government seriously deal the Maternal, Neonatal & Postnatal health service. For this reason, Donor agencies, NGOs both local & foreign are working together since 1990.

 

Bangladesh has made remarkable improvement in healthcare in the four decades since independence. The reduction of maternal mortality has been much slower than child mortality and Bangladesh still records a high maternal mortality ratio, with 194 deaths per 100,000 births Contraceptive Prevalence rate, Antenatal care coverage at least one visit percentage rate is nearly attained but Antenatal care coverage at least four visit percentage rate is slow. That is very alarming for achieving MDG Goal 5. Birth attended by skilled health personnel percentage is not satisfactory, within three years Bangladesh may not fulfill this indicators target. Unmet need for family planning percentage has been decreased from 19.4% to 17.1%.

 

The most dramatic period of improvement in human health in history is often taken to be that of late-19th-century Japan, during the remarkable modernization of the Meiji transition. Bangladesh’s record on child and maternal mortality has been comparable in scale15 Violence against women is another problem in curbing maternal mortality, with 14 per cent of the deaths of pregnant women associated with injury and violence10. Few women visit hospital after violence, or even for a checkup, because of the patriarchal social structure.16

 

6)       Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

 The first case of HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh was detected in 1989. Since then 2008 cases of HIV/AIDS have been reported (as of end November 2010). However UNAIDS estimates that the number of people living with HIV in the country by end 2009 may be as high as 6800 which is within the range of the low estimate by UNICEF’s State of the World’s Children Report 2009. The prevalence of HIV among the general population in Bangladesh is less than 1%, however, high levels of HIV infection have been found among injecting drug users (7% in one part of the capital city, Dhaka). Due to the limited access to voluntary counseling and testing services and stigma attached to HIV and AIDS, very few Bangladeshi’s are aware of their HIV status. Although still considered as a HIV low prevalence country, Bangladesh remains extremely vulnerable to an HIV epidemic, given its dire poverty, overpopulation, gender inequality and high levels of transactional sex and a sex network which includes population among which a concentrated epidemic had been established. It is estimated that without any intervention the prevalence in the general adult population could be as high as 2% in 2012 and 8% by 2025.The emergence of a generalized HIV epidemic would be a disaster that Bangladesh could ill-afford as it could further compound the existing poverty and quickly negate some of its development gains.

 

Bangladesh is in the unique position to succeed where several other developing countries have not: to keep the AIDS epidemic from expanding beyond this current level by initiating comprehensive and strategically viable preventative measures, avoiding a gradual spread of HIV infection from high-risk groups to the general population17

 

 


Table-6: Status of MDG Goal-6

Goals, Targets & Indicators

Base Year 1990/1991

Current Status(Source)

Target by 2015

Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

Target 6.A: Halve halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV,AIDS

6.1: HIV Prevalence among population,%

0.005

0.1(MIS DGHS 2010)

Halting

6.2: Condom use rate al last high risk sex,%

6.3

44-67 (UNGASS 2010)

--------

6.3: Proportion of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS,%

--

17.7(NASP 2009)

--------

6. B: Achieve, by 2015, universal access to treatment for HIC/AIDS for all those who need it. 

6.5:Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs,%

 

47.7(UNGASS 2009)

100

6.C:Halve halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of Malaria and other major disease

6.6a: Prevalence of Malaria per 100000 population

776.9

(2008)

512.6(MIS DGHS 2010)

310.8

6.6b: Deaths of Malaria per 100000 population

1.4(2008)

0.32(MIS DGHS 2010)

0.6

6.7: Proportion of children under-5 sleeping insecticide treated bed nets (13 high risk malaria district)

81% (2008)

90%(MIS DGHS 2010)

90%

6.8: Proportion of children under 5 with fever who are treated with appropriate anti malarial drugs

60%(2008)

80%(MIS DGHS 2009)

90%

6.9a:Prevalence of TB per 100000 population

639

79.4(NTPS 2010)

320

6.9b: Deaths of TB per 100000 population

76

43(MIS DGHS 2010)

38

6.10a: Detection of TB under DOTS,%

21(1994)

70.5(MIS DGHS 2010)

70

6.10b: Cure rate of TB under DOTS,%

73(1994)

92(MIS DGHS 2010)

˃85

Source: Millennium Development Goals, Bangladesh Progress Report 2011, p.65.

 


There are some challenge remain to combat HIV/AIDS such as Proportion of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS percentage is not satisfactory and   Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs percentage also low touching target rate.

Bangladesh is still in safe zone in HIV/AIDS prevalence rate. Some significant achievements of the HIV/AIDS program funded by the Global Fund are-

1. Overall HIV Prevalence remains <1%

2. HIV/AIDS information is included in text books of secondary and higher secondary level education, from grades VI to XII, in both Bangla and English.

3. HIV/AIDS prevention, care & support related information now mainstreamed within the training curriculum of five different Ministries.

4. National standards for Youth Friendly Health Services (YFHS) have been established, now practiced in public, NGO & private health service facilities countrywide.

5. Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for services to PLHIV have been endorsed by the government

6. Public-private partnership has been proved to be an effective model for fighting AIDS

7. Over 300 people living with HIV and AIDS (PLHIV) are receiving anti-retroviral treatment (ARV) per year

8. Workplace policy on Life Skills-based Education (LSE) on HIV/AIDS endorsed by Bangladesh Garments Manufacturers’ association (BGMEA)

9. Under the Ministry of Religious Affairs, 4 booklets on HIV/AIDS have been published for the 4 major practicing religions in the country.18

 

Malaria has been a major public health problem in Bangladesh. Approximately 33.6% of the total population is at risk of malaria. The majority of malaria cases are reported from 13 out of the 64 districts in the country. About 4 million populations living in 34 upazilas of eight of the thirteen districts live in the epidemic-prone border areas. Focal outbreaks occur every year, and the response to control the epidemic is inadequate. Malaria cases, however, are grossly underreported in the media due to shortcomings in surveillance and information.19

 

 Chittagong Hill Tracts is most adverse area for infecting Malaria disease in Bangladesh. Malaria diseases become localize disease in Bangladesh particularly Chittagong Hill Tracts, Cox’sBazar, Chittagong and north eastern part of Bangladesh are affected by Malaria disease. Bangladesh Government and some prominent NGOs are working together to reducing the Malaria disease in Bangladesh. BRAC has Malaria program and Grameen Bank is selling reasonable price bed net to protect malaria from Malaria disease. Pharmaceuticals companies of Bangladesh are produced essential drug for remedy its severity. But remote area peoples are facing unavailability of medical services specifically in distant areas of Chittagong Hill Tracts.


Table-7: Status of MDG Gaol-7

Goals, Targets & Indicators

Base Year 1990/1991

Current Status(Source)

Target by 2015

Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability

Target 7.A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources 

Target 7.B: Reduce biodiversity loss, achieving, by 2010, a significant reduction in the rate of loss.

7.1: Proportion of land area covered by forest,% (tree coverage) 

9.0

19.33 (DoF

 2011) (Density˃10%

20.0 Density˃70%

7.2: CO2 emissions total, per capita and per 1$ GDP PPP

Lack of Data

7.2a: CO2 emissions, metric tons per capita

0.14

0.27(DoE,2005)

-------

7.3:Consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs in metric tons per capita

195

128(DoE 2009)

0

7.4: Proportion of fish stock within same biological limits

 

54 inland & 16 marine

------

7.5: Proportion of total water resourced 

 

6.6%(2000)

 

7.6: Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected

1.64

Terri:1.82% & 0.47(DoF)

5.0

7.7: Proportion of species threatened with extinction

-

106(2001)

-           

Target: 7.C: Halve by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.

7.8: Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source

78

86(MICS 2009)

100

7.9: Proportion of population using an improved sanitation facility

39

62.7(SVRS 2009)

100

Target: 7.D: Halve, by 2020, to have achieve a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers

7.10: Proportion of urban population living in slums

-

7.8 (BBS 2001)

-

Source: Millennium Development Goals, Bangladesh Progress Report 2011.p.75

 


Bangladesh is ranked as sixth among the 22 highest burden countries for tuberculosis (TB) but this country has achieved magnificent progress for combating TB disease within short time. Bangladesh is on track for combating TB disease.

 

7)       Ensure Environmental Sustainability :

 Bangladesh is the fifth most natural disaster prone country among 173 countries in the world, according to the World Risk Report 2012.20 Therefore, Bangladesh is most vulnerable countries in the world.  Due to Climate Chang and Global Warming Bangladesh’s state of environment situation is very unhealthy and its main reasons both behavioral and natural. Water pollution, air pollution, river pollution, industrial dumping, deforestation and cutting hill also the behavioral causes of environmental degradation in Bangladesh. As a result, Bangladesh has lost the environmental instability and natural calamities creates vulnerable situation every year very frequently. Sea level is rising gradually because of global warming.  Coastal areas of Bangladesh will be submerged specifically major islands Sandwip, Bhola, Hatia and Maheshkhali directly affect for sea level rising and 20 million peoples will be climate refugee. Developed countries are mostly liable to global warming and environmental degradation.  

 

It is now recognized internationally that Bangladesh is at the forefront of adverse climate change impacts. One key reason is the disadvantaged geographical location of Bangladesh at the bottom of the three mighty river systems—those of the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, and the Meghna, with a long coastal belt and much of the country low-lying and flat. The country has no control over its water resources as over 92 per cent of the annual run-off that flows through Bangladesh on to the Bay of Bengal enters the country from upstream outside the country. Another key reason is that Bangladesh is the most densely populated country in the world, except for few city and tiny states. Therefore, the per land unit impact falls on the largest numbers of people, who are mostly poor. In short, as a result of climate change, Bangladesh is likely to face increasing risks to food security, energy security, water security, livelihood security, health security, and habitat security.21

 

Proportion of land area covered by forest percentage rate is very close to target of MDGs. In MDG 7’s all indicators data shows positive trend. Bangladesh is signatory Rio convention Bio-diversity and Kyoto protocol. For ensuring environmental sustainability Bangladesh Government has taken several steps for example National Environment Policy 1992,  The Environmental Conservation Act 1995 (amended in 2000 and 2002), The Environment Conservation Rules 1997, The Environmental Court Act 2000 (amended in 2002), National Policy on Safe Water Supply and Sanitation 1998, National Water Policy 1999, The Environment Pollution Control Ordinance 1977, Water Pollution Control Ordinance 1970, National Fisheries Policy 1998, The Forest Policy 1994, National Land Use Policy 2001, National Policy for Arsenic Mitigation 2004, and other related policy and strategy documents.   Recently formed Bangladesh Climate

Change Strategy and Action Plan. 

 

Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development 

Develop a global partnership for development is the eight goal of MDGs, Bangladesh is low human development country according to Human Development Report 2011, Bangladesh’s rank is 146 among the 187 countries in the world. Readymade Garments sector is the highest earning sector. The world become one village for globalization, Bangladesh is not alien but this country is improving gradually. As a South Asian country, its importance increases globally. Bangladesh’s plays important role in improving quality education, maternal and child health, women empowerment and way out from poverty. Many of national and international NGOs are working in Bangladesh, most of them are working together to reach the MDGs goals.

 

Between 1990-91 and 2009-10, the disbursed ODA as a proportion of Bangladesh’s GDP has declined from 5.6 percent to 2.2 percent. During this year per capita ODA disbursement fell from 15.75 to 15.25 and the relative share of grant   declined from 48 percent of ODA to 29 percent. Out of 34 member states of the OECD only 9 countries provided US$ 354.76 million ODA to Bangladesh in 2009-10.However, it was about 16 percent of the total ODA received by Bangladesh in that particular year. The MDGs sector like education, health, social welfare, labor, public administration & social infrastructure together with agriculture and rural development constituted more than 52 percent total ODA outlay.22


 

Table-8: Status of MDG Goal-8

Goals, Targets & Indicators

Base Year 1990/1991

Current Status(Source)

Target by 2015

Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development 

Target 8.A: Develop further an open, rule based, predictable, non discriminatory trading and financial system   

Target 8.B: Address the special needs of the least developed countries.

Target 8.C:Adress the special needs of landlocked developing countries

Target 8.D: Deal comprehensively with the deal problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term. 

8.1a: Net ODA received by Bangladesh (million US$)

1240

2228(ERD 2010)

_

8.1b: Net ODA received by Bangladesh, as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ GNI

5.7

0.0022(ERD 2010)

_

8.2: Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA to basic social services

42(2005)

56(2010)

_

8.3: Proportion of bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donors that is untied (received by Bangladesh)

82(2005)

100(ERD 2010)

100

8.4: ODA received in landlocked developing countries as a proportion of

their gross national incomes

Not relevant to Bangladesh

8.5: ODA received in small island developing states as a proportion of their gross national incomes

Not relevant to Bangladesh

8.6: Proportion of total developed country imports (by value excluding arms) from developing countries and from LDCs admitted free of duty

Global and DP Performance

8.7: Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products textiles and clothing from developing country (Bangladesh)

12(2005)

0-15.3(2009)

---

8.8: Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of their GDP

Global and DP Performance

8.9: Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity

Global and DP Performance

8.10: Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative)

Information not available

8.11: Debt relief committed under HIPC and MDRI initiatives

Information not available

8.12: Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services

20.9

5.7(ERD 2010)

 

Target 8.E: In cooperation with pharmaceuticals companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries.

8.13: Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis

80(2005)

80(2005)

--

Target 8.F: In cooperation with the private sector; make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications.

8.14: Telephone lines per 100 population

0.2

0.69(BTRC 2011)

--

8.15: Cellular subscribers per 100 population

--

47.05(BTRC 2011)

---

8.16: Internet users per 100 population

0.0

10.339BTRC 2011)

 

Source: Millennium Development Goals, Bangladesh Progress Report 2011, p.85-86.

 


Though, Bangladesh is the least developed countries but within 2020 Bangladesh would middle income group countries in the world by its present economical trend for this reason Bangladesh’s needs strong economic policy. Presently, Bangladesh grant share has been decreasing and loan share has been increasing. 34 OECD countries are the major ODA donors of Bangladesh. In 2009-10, nine countries have given US$ 354.76 million, Japan has given highest ODA in terms of quantity of money but Denmark has given highest in terms of percentage of Gross National Income.  From 2000-10 totals ODA disburse mainly Transport, Education, Public Administration, Power, Health, Population and Family welfare sector. Science & Technology, Labor & Manpower, Sports & Cultural sectors are not get attention to disburse ODA.

 

Total outstanding debt in 2009-10 was US$ 21448.9 million and total debt service payment in 2009-10 was US$ 1700.7 million. In same year export of goods and services were US$ 29662.7 million.

 

Bangladesh is currently considered to be the best performer among the 49 LDCs with a high-tech Pharmaceutical industry.23 Cellular phone subscriber in Bangladesh has increased day by day, according to World Bank Data in 2007 per 100 cellular phone subscribers were 24 and in 2011, 100 cellular phone subscribers were 56.24 Rapidly increasing cellular phone user in Bangladesh but how users are properly use mobile phone that is million dollar question. Telephone lines per 100 populations have increased in Bangladesh in 1990 it was 0.2(per 100 population) and 0.69 (per 100 population) in 2011. Moreover all data shows positive indicators as per previous data.

 

CONCLUSION:

Bangladesh has recorded impressive economic and social gains in the past decade. It has commendable advancement in basic human-development indicators. Since 1991 parliamentary democracy has been practiced in Bangladesh, however Political institution is not fully functions but system is continuing for better democracy. After 40 years of independence, Bangladesh is now recognizing a moderate Muslim country, as a result GDP, per capita income, literacy rate, Foreign Direct Investment, has been increased since last two decade.

 

According to Goldman Sachs Report Bangladesh is the Next 11 country in the world, which country will be lead in future by economically like BRICS.25

 

Recently the Economist said that Bangladesh is now out of ‘basket case’. In the past 20 years Bangladesh has made extraordinary improvements in almost every indicator of human welfare. The average Bangladeshi can now expect to live four years longer than the average Indian, though Indians are twice as rich. Girls’ education has soared, and the country has hugely reduced the numbers of early deaths of infants, children and mothers. Some of these changes are among the fastest social improvements ever seen. Remarkably, the country has achieved all this even though economic growth, until recently, has been sluggish and income has risen only modestly.26

 

In all aspect of Millennium Development Goals Bangladesh’s progress is remarkable. Last two decades, Bangladesh has developed in many areas like Education & Primary health. Bangladesh Government and NGOs are playing important role for developing Bangladesh. It has more advancement in the health, education and rural infrastructure than comparable developing countries. Bangladesh Government is now initiate Perspective Plan for developing strategies of Bangladesh. With this plan present government is implementing project to achieve MDGs by 2015. Bangladesh has more than three years time to reach the MDGs goals but lot of work remain till now. To meet the MDGs, Bangladesh needs political stability, ensure good governance in every sphere and collaborates with donor agencies, national & international NGOs. Out of the 52 MDG targets, Bangladesh is on track on 19 of them; and 14 of them need attention. In Bangladesh, rate of corruption is very high and lack of good governance its development activities are not properly functioning as well. Last two decades two women are govern Bangladesh, rate of gender discrimination decreased gradually. Bangladesh has made great improvement in Pharmaceutical, RMG sector, and leather sector. In Health sector Bangladesh has made significant progress mostly infant & maternal mortality have reduced dramatically and life expectancy at birth has risen sharply in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is the most vulnerable county to impacts of climate change so that Bangladesh Government needs the effective action for reducing climate vulnerability. Food security would be major issue due to climate change and coastal peoples may loss their home to boost the sea level. Though, Bangladesh has three years time to implement the remaining targets. In this regards, Bangladesh has to work very seriously to meet the challenges. Geo-politically Bangladesh’s importance is increasing day by day all over the world. Therefore, we can say Bangladesh has more advancement in the health, education and rural development than comparable developing countries. Innovative programs, targeted interventions, social safety net programs, micro-credit programs and more have helped in achieving many targets of MDGs. Bangladesh has made outstanding progress in several development sectors, although substantial challenges remain.

 

What will be the next development agenda after MDG this is the question of least developed countries like Bangladesh. Already UN secretary general Ban Ki-moon has appointed advisory panel on post-2015 development agenda. We think that advisory panel should give more concern about women rights, human rights, poverty and environmental issues for setting new development agenda.

 

REFERENCE:

1.        BRAC.2012. Bangladesh-A Next-11 country in the twenty first century, BRAC Annual Report 2011.Dhaka.

2.        GED (2005). Bangladesh Unlocking the Potential, National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction, Dhaka: General Economics Division, Bangladesh Planning Commission, Government of Bangladesh.. p-15.

3.        Bangladesh. Retrieved August 19, 2012 from http://transition.usaid.gov/bd/bangladesh.html

4.        GED (2012). Millennium Development Goals, Bangladesh Progress Report 2011. Dhaka: General Economics Division, Bangladesh Planning Commission, Government of Bangladesh.p.7

5.        MDGs and Bangladesh: Retrieved August 20,2012 from  http://www.undp.org.bd/mdgs.php

6.        Millennium Development Goals. Retrieved  August 22,2012,from   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millennium_Development_Goals

7.        GED (2012). op.cit,p.19                            

8.        Titumir, Rashed Al Mahmud,. Rahman,K.M. Mustafizur,2011, Poverty and Inequality in Bangladesh, Unnayan Onneshan-The Innovators, Dhaka, Bangladesh, p.9. 

9.        ILO, UNICEF, UNESCO. (2008), Child Labour and Education in Bangladesh: Evidence and Policy Recommendations, Bangladesh, Dhaka, p.5.

10.     GED (2012). op.cit,p.38                           

11.     The Daily Star.2012.Gender Equity Index on Bangladesh, the Daily Star, The Daily Star, Dhaka, Mach 08, 2012.

12.     Ahmed, Manzoor. (October2012). Violence-Reversing the culture of impunity, Forum, The Daily Star, Dhaka, Bangladesh, Vol.6. Issue10, p.15.

13.     GED (2010). Outline Perspective Plan of Bangladesh 2010-2021: Making  vision 2021 a reality, Dhaka: General Economics Division, Bangladesh Planning Commission, Government of Bangladesh. P.20.

14.     McCarthy, J and Maine, D 1992, A framework for analyzing the determinants of maternal mortality, Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 23-33.

15.     Bangladesh and development: The path through the fields, Retrieved 03/11/2012 from http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21565617-bangladesh-has-dysfunctional-politics-and-stunted-private-sector-yet-it-has-been-surprisingly

16.     Maternal and Neonatal Health in Bangladesh, Retrieved October 08,2012 from http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/Maternal_and_Neonatal_Health.pdf

17.     HIV and AIDS in Bangladesh, Retrieved October 12,2012 from http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/HIV_AIDS_in_Bangladesh  %281%29.pdf

18.     HIV /AIDS in Bangladesh. Retrieved October 21,2012, from     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV/AIDS_in_Bangladesh

19.     Selim,Dr Shajada..(April, 28, 2011). Malaria situation in Bangladesh, The Daily Sun, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

20.     The Daily Star.(2012).Bangladesh 5th most disaster prone country, The Daily Star, Dhaka, Saturday, October 13, 2012.

21.     GED (2010).op.cit, p.81.

22.     GED.(2012).op.cit,p.87

23.     Asian Tigers Capital Weekly Update, Dhaka,18 January 2009

24.     World Bank Data, Retrieved October,23,2012 from http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IT.CEL.SETS.P2

25.     Next Eleven. Retrieved October 25,2012 from  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Next_Eleven

26.     Bangladesh : Out of the basket, Retrieved November 3,2012 from http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21565627-lessons-achievements%E2%80%94yes-really-achievements%E2%80%94-bangladesh-out-basket

 

Received on 05.11.2012

Modified on 12.12.2012

Accepted on 10.01.2013              

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Research J. Humanities and Social Sciences. 4(1): January-March, 2013, 01-11