A Brief Introduction of Kandra Tribe in the Urban Environment

(With Special Reference to Raipur the Capital of Chhattisgarh)

 

 Dr. Chandni Markam1*, Dr. L. S. Gajpal2

1Researcher , School of Sociology and Social work, Pt.Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur C.G.

2Head and Associate Professor, School of Sociology and Social work, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University,

Raipur C.G.

*Corresponding Author Email: chandnimarkam@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Many types of tribes are found in Chhattisgarh, In which Gond tribe also knows very important who has a lot of derivatives. A major tribe of Gond, kandra tribe has been studied through this research paper, whose main task or identity is to do bamboo work, who can also be called the craftsman of bamboo. Religious rituals of the tribe and their brief introduction are presented in this research paper.

 

KEYWORDS: General introduction, bali pratha, Religious activities, Main business, Culture, dev work.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

The life of most of India's tribes was completely isolated from other communities for a long time. Tribal communities had their own distinct culture due to inhabiting inaccessible and secluded places. Today the change in the life of tribes can be understood by dividing into two main parts, the first category of changes is external change, which is the result of constitutional provisions and tribal development program. The second category of change can be called internal change. This change has arisen as a result of the process of cultural assimilation and assimilation in the tribal community itself, as tribes grew in contact with other groups and social and political consciousness was generated in them, they started expressing their dissatisfaction through various types of movements.

 

The Kandra tribe has been selected for study, which is a sub-tribe of Gond, which is found entirely in Chhattisgarh, in the Kandra tribe also, like the Gond tribe, there are same rituals, but the work of making various types of items from bamboo is done only by the people of the Kandra tribe, they can also be called craftsmen of bamboo.

 

STUDY AREA:

Chhattisgarh was formed on 1 November 2000, after which the Kandra tribe grew rapidly. The notion of the origin of the Kandra is prevalent that in the Mahabharata period, the main part of the mahabharat, Sant Supalbhagat had laid two eggs in India, one of which  fell in the field which gave rise to the farmers and the other fell into the bamboo tree, which is known as the Kandra. Since they used to make Kanwar from bamboo trees, the name of Kanwar changed to become the Kandra, Such is the perception of kandra tribal community. If we talk about 100 years ago, their standard of living was very simple, they (male) used to wear only dhoti and women only wear saree in the dress, Consumed meat and wine in the end meal.

 

Despite living in an urban environment, they have not let loose their culture, meat is essentially consumed in every program of the tribals whether it is a marriage, birth anniversary, Diwali, Dussehra, or death program. According to their culture, drinking cigarettes and alcohol is normal. They have established the temple of their  Budhadev in Mahadev Ghat located in Raipur, so that they can worship them with their society.

 

The method of compiling the facts and the election of the respondents:

The people of the Kandra tribe are residing in almost all the districts of Chhattisgarh, whose largest population is found in Gandai, for the study, 120 of the 221 families of Raipur have been selected through the method of Daivnidarshan.

 

Interview schedule and observational method were used for fact collection and Proven information was also obtained after informal discussion with experienced person.

 

PURPOSE OF STUDY:

1.      To find out the social, cultural background of the Kandra tribe.

2.      To know the origin and religious activities of the Kandra tribe.

 

Studious Kandra tribe:

Now every district of Chhattisgarh is being developed, due to this the effect of urbanization is also happening in their lives, In Chhattisgarh, around 2011, their population is only 4000 - 5000, which has a lot of influence of urbanization. Their number is found most in Gandai village of Rajnandgaon district and in Raipur, the capital of Chhattisgarh, 221 families are today Kandra tribes. The tribe's totam is ‘Mango’ and boli ‘Kevadi-Mewadi’ was used, but today in the urban environment, all Chhattisgarhi and hindi speak. Under the tribe, Markam, netam, kunjam, chhedaiya, katare, sonwan, padauti, sirmour, baidraj, bansod, munthel gotra is written.

 

Today, in the urban environment, there has been a lot of change in the standard of living of kandra tribes, after 2000 women are getting more educated and now 60 percent of the families has increased for education, getting the benefit of all government jobs and moving towards government jobs.

 

Main business:

Their main occupation is the manufacture of bamboo-made tokari, supa, paseni, khumari, parra, tatta, khilouna, kharhera etc. by women men, to manufacture objects that use a special kind of tool called a Qatari, they considers this Qatari to be devout, and it is worshiped on religious occasions. With the help of which these raw bamboo is divided into two parts and then various types of things are made from that bamboo which we use in our daily life. Producing items made from bamboo and selling them in the market has been their only means of livelihood, but due to the arrival of plastic goods in the market, their businesses are no longer doing well, and bamboo is also no longer available to them through such a quantity of government, so that they can’t do their business well.

 

Religious activities:

According to cuber –

“Religion is a model of behavior related to cultural life, Which is formed by the sacred beliefs, fervent thoughts related to the beliefs and the deaf conduct which expresses them, etc.”1

 

The people of the kandra tribe consider Sant Supalbhagat as the source of their caste's origin, the kul dev of the kandra tribe are ‘Budhadeva’ and ‘Budhidai’. Which every family has in the form of  spear and trident, the head of the family, those whose prayers are worshiped with their entire family in every festival and there is a provision of nava khai on the day of Dussehra. In which several types of dishes are made, Kheer is made from new wealth and Enlivens the Budhadev as Trishul and Spear by sacrificing goats / rooster / pig in front of them and all people of his own gotra  eat them as Prasad.

 

Dev Karya:

Every couple in the kandra tribe who have children are obliged to perform this deity work (Dev Karya) in their lifetime, but those who do not have children cannot do this work. This is the main religious program of the kandra tribe which is conducted by each family in which, before sunrise in the morning, digging a pit under the plum tree on the bank of a pond and near the snake bimbhora, considering it as a god form 7 types of rooster (black, white, red, brown), 1 Khaira Bakra, 1 Pig which is called Ghenta and Ghenti (If the child is a girl, then the female pig and if there is a boy, male pig) are sacrificed to and worship their Dulha Dev.

 

After this, all the people of their society (all goatras) are called in their place of worship and they are fed food of goat, pig and rooster as prasad, this program starts on Saturday and the Bali pratha (pujvan) in=s on Sunday and whatever food is left, (Lier, picket ) dig a pit inside the house and suppress it for 6 months. and the mother of the child in whose name this dev karya, wears a black colored bangle in her hand for 6 months. After the 6th month, it is seen opening at the time of Teeja Pola, and again everything is pressed on being fine. Till then, lit incense sticks are worshiped daily at that place.

 

In this way, their dev karya is very important for the people of the kandra tribe. While there is an equal cost for a wedding, even today, following their culture, this work is still done by every family,  and the whole kandra society also has faith in this, they believe that if the family does not get this dev karya done, then the Dulha dev does not protect his child. He has to face many kinds of misfortunes, so this program is conducted to get the happiness and long life of his children.

 

The practice is to carry out birth, marriage, death, pinddaan rituals, but now in the urban environment, this Shankar worships God, worships all the Gods and Goddesses. And even today, meat is their main offering. This tribe is becoming extinct, there has been a lot of change in cultural, matrimonial and social in the urban environment.

 

Urbanization has had a great impact in the life of the tribe, since now these tribes also see business in the cities. And to some extent also inhabiting it, it is almost away from tribal mechanics. They are living life like animal birds and animals to the extent. He is not the dazzle of the civilized world by studying this simple and natural life, the natural environment can be understood in a very simple way.

 

How the geographical location, social environment affects the life of the tribals is visible in their artificial life. In the urban environment, it does not look like a tribal, their attire has become like other common people, but it is still preserving its culture and religious activities.

 

SUGGESTION:

Tribes want to do their traditional occupation ie bamboo work, but Due to lack of adequate availability of bamboo, he is not able to make his bamboo items. If bamboo is made available to them in large quantities by the government, then it will help small scale industries. This art of the tribes should be encouraged so that they remain connected with this traditional business.

 

REFRENCES:

1-       Cuber : nadim hasnain, tribal india, jawahar publishers and distributers edition.1997.

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 01.10.2019        Modified on 28.10.2019

Accepted on 17.11.2019      ©A&V Publications All right reserved

Res.  J. Humanities and Social Sciences. 2019; 10(4): 1125-1127.

DOI: 10.5958/2321-5828.2019.00185.2