Ph.D Scholar, Mizoram University.
This paper tries to highlight the important position played by nationalist and religious sentiments in shaping Mizo identity. Religious nationalism contributes to the relationship between nationalism to a particular religious belief, dogma or affiliation. The mingling of nationalist feeling with religion is not a new phenomenon. Much before the British had arrived in Lushai Hills, the seed of nationalist perception had already sprouted among the Mizo. British introduced a new king of beliefs ‘Christianity’ through the Missionaries that received great resistance from native people. When India was at the verse of independence Christianity acquired an indispensable component of Mizo culture and ethnic identity. The Mizo National Army rebelled against Indian Government to protect their cultural, traditional, language and religious beliefs which they considered a part and parcel of the Mizo identity. Even after experiencing peace for over 30 year, religious nationalism continues to gain ever increasing momentum among the Mizo.
Laldenga in a public meeting at Lunglei Town Hall said, ‘For me and my men we had to leave the comfort of our home, friends and family. We need to hide inside the jungle as an underground to fight for independence. During our absence, the Church leader must vest in them a great responsibility to stand on behalf of the people’.1 The continuous negligence of development and denunciation of Christian amenities contributes key factors in the outbreak of MNF insurgency in 1966.2 The speech made by Laldenga emphasized the amount of respect the MNF conferred upon Church leaders.
Large scale disturbances in different parts of Mizoram added to the number of casualties.3 Taking lives was utterly against the principle of Mizo Christian beliefs. This was clearly defined when Rev. Lalngurauva says, ‘The Kingdom of God is where everybody could live together peacefully’.4 Church leaders and public figure citizens organized together under ‘Citizenship Committee’ to clear up the disorder caused by Operation Jeriko. A ‘Synod Standing Committee’ was immediately formed by Presbyterian Church of Mizoram in September 1966.5 The committee calls a meeting of different Church leaders to discuss what role they must play to solace public distress. With the hope of bringing the MNF and Indian Government under reasonable ground a ‘Peace Committee’ was formed in 1966 with Dr. Rev. Zairema, Rev. Dr. H.S. Luaia and other important Church leaders. During this period political parties and NGO didn’t dare to speak out, even Mr. Bawichhuaka fled to Shillong.6 The objective of the Committee was to oppose neither MNF nor Indian Government but to bring them together for peace development.
At Lunglei, under the banner of Baptish Church, the Citizen Committee was formed with Rev. H.S. Luaia as Chairman and Rev. C.L Hminga and Pu J. Buana as Secreatry. Important Government servants are also becoming important members. A road map to conduct a meeting between Church leaders and MNF was secretly planned. The Church needs to conduct their movement carefully because it’s not appropriate for them to directly denounce the MNF movement. Though they are an insurgent group, they fought for the cause of Mizo Nationalism within which guarding Christianity forms the heart of the struggle. Soon Rev. Zairema informed Laldenga about the formation of the Committee and its purpose. Since Christian dogma already had gained profound roots in the MNF movement, the message was well received.
Mizo Traditional Beliefs and Christianity:
Christianity enters Mizoram when two missionaries F.W. Savidge and J.H Lorraine arrived at Sairang a few kilometres from Aizawl. They were sponsored by Robert Arthington, a British millionaire who forms the Arthington Aborginis Mission.7 Before the arrival of the Missionaries, the Mizo’s beliefs centred around a spirit called ‘Khuanu’ meaning the one who give blessing. Ceremonial services were conducted by traditional priests called Bawlpu and Sadawt.8 Based on the instruction of the priest they used to perform a number of sacrifices consisting of malevolent spirits.9
The missionaries introduced education along with the preaching of Christianity.10 When enlightenment accompanied with knowledge was combined to suit the socio-communal life of the Mizo’s, it gave unbelievable success. From that period onward to the end of WW-II, 95% of the Mizo population accepted Christianity as their one and only faith and belief. The ways of Christian beliefs then slowly plunged inside their social practices and communal living.11 Gradually it became a valuable fragment of their society and community, and an inseparable element of their personality.
Emergence of Mizo Nationalist Cognizance:
Nationalist perception had already been embedded among the Mizo even before the arrival of the British. The Mizo’s had never been under the rule or control of other people.12 They conserved themselves as semi-independent villages or clusters of villages ruled by a Chief. Several times war broke out between them to show-off superiority against other clans. This represents the highest level of once loyalty and devotion towards the Chief and village people. In April, 1844 Laltuaka invaded Manipur Village killing inhabitants and burning houses was arrested by Captain Blackwood and sent into custody for life.13 This was considered by historians that pioneered to ignite the flame of Mizo nationalism beyond the reign of clans and tribes. Following this frequent raids were conducted by the Mizo against their neighbors. When the incident took place British sent expeditions to appease the situation. Since the British followed appeasement of non-interference policy, they returned to their base after soothing the problem. However, it doesn’t take long for the Mizo Chiefs to continue the routine of raiding. Sometimes they raid for their own interest but sometimes they carry out raids to protect their territory like the raid of Alexandarpore.
The British began serious consideration about Mizo Chiefs and their activity only after Bengkuaia, a Haulawng Chief, killed James Winchester and took his daughter Mary Winchester in captivity.14 A raid was also conducted by Chief Lalbuaia and Chief Thanhranga at Monierkhal and Jhalnacherra. Mizo chief carried out the raid to show their resistance to the ever expanding tea garden towards the Mizo Hill forest area. This incident resulted in the British sending expedition forces into the Hills on 11th July, 1871.15 However, the existence of some chiefs who desire to mollify the British for their own self interest indicates lack of unity among them. Instead of joining the rebel force they became servants of the British. In other words, the vibe of Mizo nationalism during the Chieftainship period still concentrated with some particular individual, clans, region or places. However, the presence of British ignites the sensation of unity as Mizo Nation more than ever before it does. This happened after the Chin-Lushai Expedition, 1888-1890 when the British decided to set camp in Mizoram.16
The Mizo Chief never welcomes the British domination which resulted in many unwanted conflicts and incidence.17 Chiefs like Suakpuilal, Lalburha, Bengkuaia, Lalsavunga, Nikuala, Kairuma and many others revolt against the British systems of administration. They were not happy about the division of Mizo dominant areas under three separate administrations. The individual who wanted to maintain semi-independent administration before now considered the inevitability of unity to safeguard their land and people. In 1890, Khuangchera, a brave and fearless ‘Mizo Pasaltha’ gave up his life defending the dead body of his friend who died from British bullet. Till today, he became ‘Hero’ of the Mizo’s whenever a topic of nationalism came to renown.
The educated intellectual soon realized the importance of political well-being and personal freedom.18 The WW-II opened the door for many Mizo’s to see the outside world for being fighting along the British Army in Europe. After the end of the war, these men came back with the dignity of freedom fighters. When India was about to become independent the question of Mizo National identity was looming larger. The option between India and Burma or to remain a part of British colony makes a hot debate. The Mizo’s then decided to remain a part of India believing a promise made to them by Indian leaders that they will have the freedom to decide their future after ten years.19
In the political arena, development of national consciousness led to the emergence of Mizo Union (MU) on the 9th April, 1946 the first political party in Lushai Hill.20 Lushai Hills which later became Mizo Hills was made a District under Assam State. India being a democracy was believed to be a land of peace, freedom and equal treatment including safeguard of their culture, tradition and religion. However, the existence of diverse traditional and cultural practices had placed a barrier of treatment among the people. The Lushai Hills became among the most neglected districts where development and progress hardly reached. Moreover, the influence of plain people in the socio-economic, language, cultural and lifestyle of Mizo begins to put questions on their identity and religion.
Political parties like Mizo Union and United Mizo Freedom organisation (UMFO) already made themselves popular with the people. However, instead of delivering development the two parties spend much of their time busy fighting each other for power.21 At this juncture the MNF party with the objective of upholding and safeguarding Mizo nationalism and Christianity had surfaced.22 The MNF sponsored nationalism encompasses the unification of all the geopolitical areas inhabited by the Mizo in India, Burma and Bangladesh under one nation.23 Compiling nationalist sentiment with religious beliefs had remarkable drive particularly among educated intellectuals. They understood safeguarding their geographical terrain and religious beliefs provided utmost importance in preserving their identity.
The beckon was so strong it generated a sense of fearlessness among volunteers to sacrifice the comfort of their home to take shelter inside the jungle. During the peak of the MNF movement it’s a disgrace for a healthy young man not to join the volunteers. Almost every young man from all localities and villages wanted to take part in the movement. They had the belief that God had created the Mizo as a nation but not to live under the domination of others.24 In other words, under MNF ideology nationalism and religious dogma fastened their rightful place inside Mizo identity. The movement united the Mizo’s to share a common unique feeling i.e., the love for Mizoram and cherish Christianity. Not only Mizo’s from Mizoram but also from Manipur, Tripura, Burma and Bangladesh came for the quest of MNF movement.
Religion base Nationalism:
In Mizoram the MNF pioneered the practice of mingle politics and religion. Based on this ideology, MNF lectured the nationalism they strive for was supported by God. Even before the beginning of insurgency, such an idea had gained huge support among the people and different Church denominations. Some Churches like Manaseh Church, Maicham Kohhran and Ramthuthlung Church preached MNF propaganda as a part of their beliefs.25
MNF leaders were frequently labelled as underground and a law breaker because of independent movement.26 But when it comes to Christianity they always seem to have a soft corner. Infect the core MNF administration centred on Christian beliefs and dogmas. For them religion already inhabits one of the utmost important positions in their nationalism. Due to this they had always remunerated intense respect for the Church and the people who are closely connected with it. This on the other hand, allows Church leaders to play the important role of peace emissary during the insurgency period.
Many times people talk about the role played by the Church but hardly speak about the MNF role of being a dedicated Christian. Whenever the MNF set up a camp, they organised a regular Church service and mass prayer. Several times gospel revival happens among Mizo National Army, having enormous positive impact among the volunteers.27 The volunteers did not hesitate to praise God with songs and dance supplementary to achieving their mission with gallantry and valiant.
The Church occupied such reverence positions due to the fact that volunteers themselves are dedicated Christian. There are times when the MNA would like to enlist all angers and disappointment using arms with violent means. But when they received an appeal in the name of the Church, no rebel leader wanted to be the person who tarnished the name of Christian God. In other words, the roots of Christianity generate mutual understanding, communal respect and love of peace and harmony before personal self-interest. When Lalthangliana, a devoted Seventh-day Adventist was asked by Chinese delegates to have a deeper study about Marxism, he replied ‘I didn’t like to study the book that originated from the brain of non-Christian that don’t believe in God’.28
Importance of Church during Insurgency:
During the battle to capture Lunglei Assam Rifle camp, one volunteer hurriedly arrived at Rev. C.L Hminga’s doorstep telling him, ‘Our leaders felt that we were being neglected by the Church leaders. They want you to visit us and pray for us’. Taking Rev. H.S. Luaia and Rev. K.T. Chungnunga they immediately went to the battle ground. Under the command of Col. Lalzama many MNA volunteers had gathered at Kikawn. After saying a few words of comfort, they have a prayer and left the place. At the middle of the night, some volunteer wake him again requesting him to conduct the funeral of those unfortunate individuals who lost their lives in the shooting.29 In this manner the evangelical duty performed by Church leaders had remained fundamental.
When nationalism gave birth to MNF it also comprised protecting Christian beliefs which they considered to be a crucial element of Mizo identity. They firmly believed the dissemination of your culture and tradition is not heavier than that of your religion (Christianity). The fight for Mizo nationalism became the fight for their religious liberation. It’s not a matter of deceptions that political treatment from Indian Government and Assam Government was unacceptable. The deepening incursion of Indinization among the youth can be seen with one own eyes. Experiencing these calls for salvation resides in everyone's heart.30 This compelled the Church to organise a careful plan in order to keep its members away from taking part in violence movements. However, the desire for change directly insists nationalist spirits among the public.
On 13th March, 1966 the Presbyterian Church issued a circular condemning the desolation imposed by the MNF insurgency. The same circular was also published by the Baptist Church a few days later.31 In the beginning such declarations cannot be well digested by MNF. The MNF considers fighting for self-determination and autonomy is their natural right. The issue almost creates a certain level of misunderstanding between the MNF and the Church. Laldenga states that, ‘All those happenings were never a part of their choice but they have to carry out to protect themselves’.32
When the Church leaders raised their freedom of expression stating they have the right to say what they wanted, Laldenga praised them for their effort in condemning violence. He also states that since the volunteers are also Christians form different denominations, hurting their religious sentiment would not be the best option. He requests the Church not only to condemn the MNF but also the action of Indian Army especially for attacking Aizawl with jet fighters, discerning Church properties and on ground of human rights violation. Church leaders request MNF to regulate their mission to return peace and normalcy even if needed to talk with the Government. This somehow resolved their previous miss understanding and agreed to maintain communication in the future.
The Church leaders have meetings with Lalnunmawia, Vice President, Sainghaka, Home Minister and Lalhmingthanga, Home Minister of MNA government. They also met Indian delegates B.C Carriapa, Commissioner of Cachar and Aizawl District and B.P Chaliha Chief Minister of Assam requesting to talk with the MNF for the return of peace and normalcy. After gaining trust from the Government the MNF were drawn more closely to the Church. Though the MNF never wanted to begin negotiation openly with Indian Government, the Church leaders tried their best to convince them. Apart from changing letters, Church leaders Rev. Zairema, Rev. Lalngurauva and others did not hesitate to sacrifice their time and energy by secretly taking a long journey inside thick jungle to meet MNA.
In 1967 an incident took place where Sainghaka, Home Minister (MNA) and R. Romawia, Political Assistant (MNA) were arrested by the Security force possessing letters from the Church leaders.33 The arrest spreads an air of suspicions towards the Church leaders as spies for the Indian army. The Army also suspects them of being an informer for the MNF. This put the role played by Church leaders into a very undesirable condition. Ultimately they’ve lost the trust of the MNF and India Government and their intentions of installing peace seem rolling away. Due to the incident some Church leaders even received life- threatening situations.34
Though the road to peace seems to be pushing the limit at some point, Church leaders did not want to give it up. They would make journeys spending nights in underground camps to find opportunities to communicate with MNF delegates.35 They would spend the night inside the jungle awaiting the appearance of MNF delegates. This was done under a secret operation from the CID and even their wife’s and family members never knew their mission and about where they travel. During this period, even Church leaders were always under the surveillance of CID.
The role of Church leaders did not end with peace emissary. They regularly engaged in delivering gospel of peace and harmony to their members as a means of condolence during the time of disturbances. They organised a regular prayer session for the return of peace and normalcy in Mizoram. In almost every church sermon, the preacher requests church members to keep away from indulging in violent activities. Though such efforts were helpful in slowing down the heat to some point there’s also difficulty to convince the larger population, because during 1966-76, 85% of the people were fully behind the movement.36 Large portions of the population join the insurgent group considering themselves a crusader for their religious beliefs.
In 1969 when the Church worked tirelessly to restore peace and normalcy, the MNF issued an order to arrest all the Mizo officers who served under Indian Government. This created serious nervousness among the public, especially civil servants because they were instructed to attend office as usual. They are at the middle of fire. Civil servants from Lunglei approached Rev. C.L Hminga, requesting him to meet the MNF leaders to sort out reasonable ground for them. They want him to negotiate with the MNF and convince them to overrule the order. He then contacted Pastor Zopiana who was stationed at Zobawk to investigate the location of MNA R.V where they could have a talk with their leaders. Accompanied by Rev. K.V. Chungnunga they walked from Serkawn to Zobawk and proceeded at Tlawng River under the guidance of Pastor Zopiana where Senator Ngunhula had received them. They delivered the message they’ve carried with humble request. The MNF called off their order with due respect to the request made by prominent Church leaders. Church leaders in Aizawl were also carrying out comparable missions. As soon as the MNF order came out widespread panic instigated among the people. Rev. Zairema contacted Lalkhawliana, Fianace Minister of MNF Government informing the Commissioner Carriapa willingness to carry out negotiation. When the negotiation was about to happen Indian Government suddenly called off the deal, realising there's a problem of leadership within MNF.
The Church's effort to make the MNF and Indian Government sit around had failed several times. However, the Church did not want to give up the hope of returning peace and harmony. At different parts of their camp the MNF volunteers organized regular gospel service. In the Headquarter, Church was constructed where proper worship service was conducted.37 This tells of the strong bonding they’ve cherished in Christianity along fighting on behalf of the Mizo nation. Besides the Church leaders were the one who truly recognized how much the root of Christian ideology had creeped inside the MNF organization and its administration.
At the turn of 1971, especially after the fall of East Pakistan MNF was forced to shift headquarters to Arakan.38 Due to pressure from the Myanmar Government they cannot settle there for long but to leave the place very soon. This problem makes MNF operation more and more complicated. In the meantime support from Pakistan and China was heavily degrading. In addition the Indian Government also decided to ex-communicate with them. Above all the Mizo people continuously call for peace because they have been suffering for too long. Laldenga and the other MNA leaders also began to realise the resource they possessed would not be sufficient to give them the independence they demanded. Many intellectuals from the volunteer openly expressed their opinion in favour of supporting the Church leader’s peace programme.39 They consider the best choice for them was to follow the process of peace negotiation under the umbrella of Indian Constitution. But the MNF cannot make a move since Indian Government chose to keep silent. At this intense moment MNF desperately needed a mediator to deliver their message to New Delhi. Laldenga cannot put his trust in any NGO’s or political parties. The only body he trusted and wanted to depend upon was the Church and the Church alone.
Zoram Kohhran Hruaitute Committee reforms into ‘Mizoram Kohhran Hruaitute Committee’ (MKHC) on August 13th 1982. The committee was created to revive the peace negotiation between MNF and Indian Government which was put into hold for some time. Rev. Lalsawma during his visit to London in 1984, expressed to Laldenga about the meeting conducted between Church leaders and Prime Minister Indira Gandhi during her visit to Mizoram. He conveyed a statement made by Indira Gandhi that ‘if Laldenga wants peace talk, it must begin with him’.40 Laldenga told him the only people whom he can trust at that moment were the Church leaders. If he wishes to talk to anyone it would be the Church whom he would approach. Shortly after this meeting took place, Laldenga landed at New Delhi to resume peace negotiation. But the untimely assassination of Indira Gandhi had doomed the peace negotiation once again.41
Due to the demise of Indira Gandhi peace process was put into hold. In the meantime rumour emerged Laldenga had lost his patience and decided to travel back to London again. MKHC knew the delay of negotiation would only worsen the situation in Mizoram. They also knew the only people the MNF President wanted to conduct business with were the Church leaders. On 28th March, 1985, MKHC Executive Meeting decided to send a representative to New Delhi to meet Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. Rev. Lalsawma, Rev. Dr.Lianzuala, Rev. R. Lalrinsanga, Pu. V.L. Bela, Maj. Sawichhunga and Maj. Thansanga went to Delhi as a representative of the peace emissary. They had separate meetings with Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Laldenga separately. After staying at Delhi for five days they were able to convince both parties to begin negotiation on a long lasting peace agreement.
During their meeting with Laldenga, the delegates request him to stand firm and bring back the best for Mizoram not lesser than elements like University, High Court and other important developments for Mizoram. They promise MKHC will always stand behind him when it comes to the cost of Mizoram and its people. They’ve met Rajiv Gandhi at his Bungalow expressing their concern for restoration of peace and harmony in Mizoram. After the meeting they requested the Prime Minister to visit Mizoram with his family which indicates the response they received was generous. Soon after a meeting between MKHC and Rajiv Gandhi, Indian Government and MNF carried out a peace talk that was completed with the signing of Peace Accord on June 30th 1986. The peace process could be materialized due to the trust gained by the Church from both Indian Government and the MNF.
Looking back history, many wars broke out because of religion viz., the Crusade against the Muslim conquest to capture Jerusalem, Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, the Islamic Jihad and many more. Many nations set a condition where the people had to respect and follow religious norms. Since most of the nation had been constructed because of certain factors including religions. Therefore, religion and nationalism always stand side by side. In this post-modern era, the role of religion in Mizo society has become larger than ever.42
From the beginning of insurgency till the signing of the Peace Accord in 1986, the Church played the most crucial role both socially and politically. The momentous position occupied by Christianity in the socio-cultural, traditional and communal lives of the Mizo’s breed’s tangible respect. Therefore, religious and national identities are inseparable rather than embedded in the flesh and blood of the people. This became the only reason why the Church was allowed to play the mediator role between MNF and Indian Government. There are times the MNF can opt for different ideologies like Communism of China. However, they never wanted to shift beliefs and faith from Christianity. The MNF firmly stands with the theme, ‘For God and Our Country’.
Most importantly, the movement inculcated a sensation of religion base Mizo Nationalism to the young generation. They strive to save guard their culture, tradition, religion and freedom. At the end of the day the core of Christian beliefs rested upon peace and harmony conveyed the MNF to conclude a Peace Accord with India. However, this does not at all imply the deterioration of Nationalism they kindled but had even ground stronger. Today the Church becomes increasingly influential in social and Government administration. Christianity represents itself as a fortification of Mizo identity. The MNF ideology of Mizo nationalism had embraced Christianity much deeper into Mizo culture and society. Mizo identity is an inborn persona nourished and sustained by nationalism and religious beliefs. This truly highlights the reason for Mizoram being the most Christian populated State in India.
1. Rev. C.L Hminga – interviewed in 2016 at Ram Zotlang, Lunglei. Mizoram.
2. See-https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331951102_IMPACT_ OF_INSURGENCY_IN_MIZORAM_WITH_SPECIAL_REFERENCE_TO_THE_SIXTH_SCHEDULE_AREA accessed on 24.7.2020
3. See-http://mizoram.nic.in/about/history.htm accessed on 24.7.2020
4. Rev. Lalngurauva interviewed in 2016 at Mission Veng, Aizawl. Mizoram
5. See-https://www.eastmojo.com/news/2018/11/20/mizoram-how-the-church-calls-the-shots-during-state-elections accessed on 27.7.2020
6. C. Hermana. “ZoramBuai Lai Khan”. Published by C. Hermana, 2015. Aizawl,p.115
7. See-http://mattersindia.com/2017/03/mizoram-observes-first-christian-missionarys-arrival/ access on 12.02.2020
8. See-https://books.google.co.in/books?id=Gp Nw Heu Of To C & pg = PA152&lpg=PA152&dq=bawlpu+and+sadawt&source=bl&ots=kZJuIV1B3r&sig=ACfU3U1wl6iCfnqqwFQLEblGNrlXEZ-Taw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwiZmdjX-aboAhWWyjgGHWagBcYQ6AEwBHoECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=bawlpu%20and%20sadawt&f=false access on 12.02.2020
9. See-https://www.halfandone.com/2019/07/who-is-a-mizo/ access on 14/10/2019 access on 12.02.2020
10. See-https://www.mizobaptist.org/education-department/ access on 12.02.2020
11. See-https://garph.co.uk/ IJARMSS/Oct2016/1.pdf accessed on 27.7.2020
12. See - http://188.8.131.52:8080/jspui/bitstream/10603/60417/10/10_ chapter%203.pdf accessed on 24.7.2020
13. P. Lalnithanga IAS (Retd). “Emergence of Mizoram”. Published by P. Lalnithanga, 2005. Aizawl,p.6
14. See- https://mizoarchive.wordpress.com/2015/12/04/zoluti-mary-winchester-chanchin-ama-ziah/ access on 12.02.2020
15. R. Vanlawma. “Ka Ram Leh Kei (My Country and I)”. Published by M.C. LalnithangaKhatla, 1965 Aizawl, p.52
16. Robert Reid, ‘ The Excluded Areas of Assam’. The Geographical Journal Vol. 103, No. 1/2 (Jan. – Feb., 1944),p.18
17. Lalchungnunga . “Mizoram Politics of Regionalism and National Integration”. Reliance Publishing House, 1994. New Delh, pp.44-46
18. H. Vanlawma. “Mizoram Politics Chanchin (1952 hmalam)”. Published by Mrs. Vanlalmawii, 2001. Aizawl,p.59
19. R. Zamawia (Defence Minister, MNA) interviewed in 2016 at Tanhril. Aizawl
20. Jagadish K. Patnaik. “Mizoram: Dimensions and Perspectives (Society, Economy and Polity)”. Concept Publishing Company, 2008. New Delhi,p.11.
21. See-http://mzuir.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/123456789/669/1/ LALMUANA%20GUITE,%20Pol.sc.pdf accessed on 27.7.2020
22. See- file:///C:/Users/PC/Downloads/MIZORAM%20DEVELOPMENT %20OF%20POLITICAL-ADMINISTRATIVE%20SYSTEM.pdf accessed on 27.7.2020
23. C. Lalkhawliana Ex-MNA) interviewed in 2016 at Chanmari, Aizawl
24. Lalchungnunga, interviewed in 2016 at SarawnVeng, Aizawl.
25. Dr. L. Gyananda Singh, ‘Two Decades of Turmoil and Peace in Mizoram’. International Journal of Advance Research in Management and Social Science, October (2016). Vol.5/ No.10
26. See-http://mizoram.nic.in/about/history.htm accessed on 25.7.2020
27. Rochungnunga(Ex-MNA)interview in 2016 at Sarawn veng, Aizawl.
28. Pu Bualhranga (Ex- MNA) interview at Aizawl 2016.
29. Rev. C.L Hminga. “Remna Lal Hnung Zuiin”. Ramzotlang, Lunglei. Mizoram
30. Rev. R. Lalrinsanga(Ex-MNA) interviewed in 2016 at Mualpui, Aizawl.
31. C. LalawmpuiaVancheu(2014). Rambuai Literature. Pulished by Lengchawn Press, Aizawl, Mizoram. p166
32. The MNF submitted a memorandum to the Prime Minister, President and Vice President telling them political solution of our demands. We even sign letter of loyalty to Assam Government and Indian Government but all our efforts were in void. Instead they made a secret plan to curbed MNF by arresting all our important leaders. We already knew the intension of the Government when they send 18th Assam Rifle Regiment in Mizoram.
33. See- https://www.satp.org/satporgtp/publication/faultlines/volume4/ Fault 4-JafaF1.htm access on 15.02.2020
34. When Rev. Lalngurauva resides at Paikhai, someone wrote in his wall ‘Ngurauva should stop preaching peace within Indian Union and he should also never accompany the Indian Intelligent Officer’.
35. Rev. Lalngurauva interview in 2016 at Mission Veng, Aizawl.
36. Lalsangliana(Ex-MNA) interview in 2016 at Kanan Veng, Aizawl.
37. Rochungnunga interviewed in 2016 at Sarawn Veng, Aizawl.
38. R. Zamawia(2012) .ZofateZinkawngah (Zalenna Mei a Mit Tur a Bi Lo). Published by R. Zamawia, Tanhril. Mizoram,p.741
39. See-http://184.108.40.206:8080/jspui/bitstream/10603/60417/12/12_ chapter % 205.pdf accessed on 27.7.2020
40. Rev. R. Lalrinsanga. “ZKHC in RemnaPalaiHna a Thawh Dan”. Published by Mizoram KohhranHruaitute Committee, Aizawl. Mizoram,p.27
41. R. Rothuama. “Mizoram Remna leh Muanna Intran Dan Leh a Kal Zel Dan”. Published by Dr. Sarah Ralte, 2016. Khatla, Aizawl,pp.18-21
42. See-https://www.pewforum.org/2017/05/10/religious-belief-and-national-belonging-in-central-and-eastern-europe/ access on 13.02.2020
Received on 05.08.2020 Modified on 09.09.2020
Accepted on 03.10.2020 ©AandV Publications All right reserved