Mechanical role of Arm Swing on Vertical Jump Performance

 

Pallab Ghosh1, Dr. Papan Mondal2, Pintu Masanta3

1Research Scholar, Dept. of Physical Education, Jadavpur University, Kolkata - 700032, West Bengal, India.

2Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education, Jadavpur University, Kolkata - 32, West Bengal, India.

3M.P.Ed, Dept.of Jadavpur University, Kolkata-32, W.B. India.

*Corresponding Author Email: ghoshpallab2@gmail.com, papanju2010@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Introduction: Advanced technology has allowed biomechanists to gather very accurate measurements of many of the parameters associated with human movement. In sports, vertical jump is very important factors. It is an effective exercise for building both endurance and explosive power and through the vertical jump performance the players take advantage in sports. So here, the present study was to analyze the Mechanical role of arm swing on vertical jump performance. Objective: 1. To know the mechanical role of arm swing and without arm swing on vertical jump performance of university level players of Jadavpur University, West Bengal, India. 2. To know the effect of power on arm swing and without arm swing of vertical jump performance of the university level players of Jadavpur University, West Bengal, India. 3. To find out the relationship between power and arm swing of vertical jump performance of the university level players of Jadavpur University, West Bengal, India. Methodology: 4 Volleyball (20.29±1.38 years, 179±4.54cm and 67±4.34kg), 4 Basketball (23.43±2.57years, 170.57±3.15cm and 62.13±7.58kg) and 4 High Jump (21.75±.95 years, 170.37±3.15cm and 64.75±2.21kg) university (Jadavpur university) level players were selected randomly as the subjects. Results: The result of study revealed that there were significant differences (t-4.17*) between arm swing (56.67±4.86cm) and without arm swing (43.21±4.23) vertical jump performance of high jump players and vertical jump performance of the volleyball and basketball players were found no significant difference but positive effect showed. Also the results showed that in power (ground reaction force) there were no significant differences found between arm swing and without arm swing of the university level players. There were also positive relationship found in Volleyball (r-0.61), Basketball (r- 0.89) and High jump (r- 0.84) University level players between power and arm swing vertical jump performance. Conclusion: Arm swing positively effect on the vertical jump performance for Volleyball, Basketball and High Jump players. Arm swing also positively effect on increased the power which in turn help to increased the jumping height of Volleyball, Basketball and High Jump players. It also concluded that there is positive relationship between power and with arm swing in vertical jump performance.

 

KEYWORDS: Video Camera, Vertical Jump, Arm Swing, Players.

 

 

1. INTRODUCTION:

In contrast to the humans, today’s humanoid robots are mostly unable to perform fast movements such as the vertical jump. They can mostly perform only slow and statically stable movements that do not imitate the human motion. Besides, these slow and statically stable movements are energy inefficient. With the understanding of the anatomy and the biomechanics of the human body, one can find out that, beside the shape, majority of today’s humanoid robots and human bodies do not have a lot of common properties. To achieve a better imitation of the human motion and ability to perform fast movements such as the vertical jump or running, other properties and particularities, beside the shape of the body, should be considered in the design of the humanoid robot.

 

Vertical jumping ability is an important fundamental skill for many athletic activities. It has been one of the tests most used by coaches and researchers to assess the muscle power and joint angle of the lower limbs of athletes. Vertical jumping ability is a highly valued and much sought after athletic attributes. It is an important aspect of performance. In addition, vertical jump is motor skill performed in several sports during movement like attacking and blocking in volleyball, rebound in basketball, among others. A vertical jump is the act of raising one`s centre of gravity higher in the vertical plane solely with the use of one owns muscles; it is a measure of how high and individual are athlete can elevate off the ground from a stand still.

 

Maximum jumping height depends on such lower limb joint angle and arm swing. The purpose of the researcher was to identify the mechanical role of arm swing on vertical jump performance of university level players.

 

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

Here the intention of the researcher was to identify and to explain the enhancement of vertical jumping performance when using an arm swing compared to when no arm swing is used. So problem was stated as “Mechanical role of arm swing on vertical jump performance”.

 

OBJECTIVE:

1.   To know the mechanical role of arm swing and without arm swing on vertical jump performance of university level players.

2.   To know the effect of power on arm swing and without arm swing vertical jump of the university level players.

3.   To find out the relationship between power and arm swing vertical jump of the university level players.

 

HYPOTHESIS:

H0 There is no mechanical role of arm swing on vertical jump performance of volleyball, basketball and jump players of Jadavpur University.

 

2. METHODOLOGY:

2.1 Selection of Subjects:

The subjects selected for the present study were 12 male university players [4 Volleyball (20.29±1.38 years, 179 ±4.54cm and 67±4.34kg), 4 Basketball (23.43±2.57 years, 170.57±3.15cm and 62.13±7.58kg) and 4 High Jump (21.75±.95 years, 170.37±3.15cm and 64.75± 2.21kg)] from All India Inter-University tournament.

 

2.2 Tools and Equipment:

One camera (Cannon 1200D) with tripod, measuring tape, motion analysis software (Kinovea 0.8.24) and computer system etc. were used.

 

2.3 Selection of Variables:

The anthropometric variables such as height, weight, release height and kinematic parameters were taken from the subjects.

 

Procedure for Data Collection

The data was obtained during non-competition situation. Canon 1200D (30fps Cameras) was used to collect the action of vertical jump performance. The camera was mounted on the firm tripod at the height of 1.3 meters from the ground and at a distance of 5 meters from the jumping area (marked) on sagittal right. After recording the 3 actions trials for each subject, the video clips were downloaded in the personal computer. Then the identified action of each subject were digitized and analyzed with the help of Kinovea 0.8.24 motion analysis software.

 

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS:

In this chapter the data, Statistical analysis of data, results obtained from statistical analysis, discussion of the result had been included in this chapter.

 

Table-1: Mean and SD of Jumping Height in Case of Arm Swing and Without Arm Swing for Volleyball Players.

Volleyball Players

Variables

 

Mean ± SD

Calculated t-value

Jump height with arm swing (cm)

51.932±2.159

 

2.929

Jump height without arm

swing(cm)

46.180±3.280

*Required value for being significant at 3df, at 0.05 level is 3.182.

 

From Table 1: It shows that the volleyball players with arm swing greater than without arm swing vertical jump performance. There was no significantly difference between with arm swing and without arm swing vertical jump.

 

For the volleyball players without arm swing mean jump height was 46.18 ±3.28 cm. and with arm swing the mean jump height was 51.93±2.15 cm. This difference was not statistically significant but had some positive effect. The result suggested that arm swing significantly improved the jump height for volleyball players.

 

Fig 1: Graphical Representation of Mean Jump Height in Case of Volleyball Players with Arm Swing and Without Arm Swing.

 

Table-2: Mean and SD of Jumping Height in Case of Arm Swing and Without Arm Swing for Basketball Players.

Basketball players

Variables

Mean ± SD

Calculated

t-value

Jump height with arm swing(cm.)

38.901±3.800

 

2.362

Jump height without

arm swing(cm.)

33.410±2.676

*Required value for being significant at 3df, at 0.05level is 3.182

 

From Table 2: It has been shows that the basketball players with arm swing the vertical jump performance greater then without arm swing. There was no significantly difference between with arm swing and without arm swing in vertical jump.

 

For the basketball players without arm swing in the mean jump height was 33.41±2.67 cm. and with arm swing the jump height was 38.90±3.80 cm. This difference was not statistically significant but had some positively effect. The result suggests that arm swing significantly improved the jump height for basketball players.

 

Fig 2: Graphical Representation of Mean Jump Height in Case of Basketball Players with Arm Swing and Without Arm Swing.

 

Table-3: Mean and SD of Jumping Height in Case of Arm Swing and Without Arm Swing for Jumpers.

Jumpers

Variable

Mean ± SD

Calculated

t-value

Jump height with arm swing (cm.)

56.675±4.862

 

4.173*

Jump height without arm swing (cm.)

43.215±4.237

*Required value for being significant at 3df, at 0.05level is 3.18.

 

From Table 3: It shows that the Jumpers with arm swing vertical jump performance greater than without arm swing vertical jump performance.  There was significantly difference between with arm swing and without arm swing vertical jump.

 

For the jumpers without arm swing mean jump height was 43.21±4.23 cm. and with arm swing the jump height was 56.67±4.86 cm. This difference was also statistically significant. The result suggested that arm swing significantly improved the jump height for jumpers.

 

Everettet et al (1991) found that the jump heights (displacement of the CG from the standing position; mean ± s) were 46.2±7cm (SJ), 55.9±4.69cm (SJA), 49.8±5.41cm (CJ) and 58.8±4.53cm (CJA). The results suggested that both counter movements and arm swings significantly improved the jump height, but the arm swings enhanced the jump height more than counter movements.

 

Fig 3: Graphical Representation of Mean Jump Height in Case of Jumpers with Arm Swing and Without Arm Swing.

 

Table 4:- Increase of Jump Height (%) by Using Arm Swing for Volleyball Players, Basketball Players, and Jumpers.

Category

Mean jump height in case of without arm swing (cm).

Mean jump height in case of with arm swing (cm).

Mean  increase of jump height (cm)

% of increase of jump height

Volleyball players

46.180

51.932

5.75

12.45

Basketball players

33.410

38.901

5.491

16.43

Jumpers

43.215

56.675

13.46

31.14

 

Form table 4:- It shows that the mean jump height with arm swing  of  volleyball players, basketball players and jumpers were 51.932cm, 38.901cm and 56.675cm. The mean jump height without arm swing of volleyball players, basketball players and jumpers were 46.180cm,33.410cm and 43.215cm respectively. So, the mean jump height increased 5.75 cm, 5.491cm, 13.46cm and percentage of mean jump height increased 12.45%,16.43% and 31.14%. So here we found that with arm swing mean jump height > the without arm swing mean jump height.

 

Table 5: The Mean ± SD of Power in Case of With Arm Swing and Without Arm Swing.

Subject

Mean± SD Power

with arm swing

Mean±SD Power

without arm swing

t- value

Volleyball

players

98.965±6.263 watt

93.692±7.262 watt

1.099

Basketball

players

98.002±15.603 watt

93.207±17.574 watt

0.408

Jumper’s

98.855±4.533 watt

87.066±6.527 watt

2.96

*Required value for being significant at 3df, at 0.05level is 3.182

 

The findings of table 5 shows that the power (Mean ± SD) of Volleyball player, Basketball player and jumpers were 98.965±6.263watt, 98.002±15.603 watt and 98.855±4.533 watt respectively and there was difference in mean score of power with arm swing and without arm swing of Volleyball players, Basketball players and jumpers.  Mean power for the jumpers between arm swing and without arm swing was statistically significant.

 

Table 6:- Percentage of Increase in Mean Power for Volleyball Players.

Subject

No

Power

In arm swing (watt)

Power without arm swing(watt)

Power increase (watt)

%Increase (watt)

1

89.6

84

5.6

6.66

2

101.88

94.66

7.22

7.62

3

102.77

101.61

1.16

1.14

4

101.61

94.50

7.11

7.52

 

Mean 98.96

Mean 93.69

Mean 5.27

Mean 5.73

 

From Table 6:- It shows that the volleyball players with arm swing the power for the vertical jump was greater than without arm swing.  With arm swing mean power was 98.96 watt and without arm swing mean power was 93.69 watt. So the mean power increased 5.27 watt and percentage of mean power increased 5.73%. So here we found that with arm swing mean power > the without arm swing mean power. And result suggested that arm swing is beneficial to increase the power by 5.73% in vertical jump for volleyball players. This finding are similar to those of Hara M et. al (2006).

 

Table 7: Percentage of Increase in Mean Power for Basketball Players.

Subject

No

Power in arm

Swing (watt)

Power

without

arm swing (watt)

Power

Increase

(watt)

%

Increase

(watt)

1

85.63

77.33

8.3

10.73

2

104

97.5

6.5

6.66

3

117.33

116.16

1.17

1.007

4

85.05

81.84

3.21

3.92

 

Mean 98.002

Mean 93.20

Mean 4.79

Mean 5.57

 

From Table 7:- It shows that the basketball players with arm swing the power for the vertical jump was greater than without arm swing. With arm swing mean power was 98.002 watt and without arm swing mean power was 93.20 watt. So the mean power increased 4.79 watt and percentage of mean power increased 5.57%. So here we found that with arm swing mean power > the without arm swing mean power.

 

Table 8: Percentage of Increase in Mean Power for Jumpers.

Subject

No

Power

In arm

Swing

(watt)

Power

without

arm swing (watt)

Power

Increase

(watt)

%

Increase

(watt)

1

95.03

81.28

13.75

16.91

2

102.82

92.43

10.39

11.24

3

102.74

93

9.74

10.47

4

94.83

81.55

13.28

16.28

 

Mean 98.85

Mean 87.065

Mean 11.79

Mean 13.72

From Table 8:- It shows that the jumpers with arm swing the power for the vertical jump was greater than without arm swing. With arm swing mean power was 98.85watt and without arm swing mean power was 87.065watt. So the mean power increased 11.79 watt and percentage of mean power increased 13.72%. So here we found that with arm swing mean power > the without arm swing mean power.

 

Table 9:- relationship between with arm swing and power of volleyball, basketball and high jumper.

Subjects

With arm swing (CM)

Power (Watt.)

“r”

Volleyball

51.93

98.96

.61

Basketball

38.90

98.00

.89

Jumper

56.67

98.85

.84

 

From table 9- The results showed that there were positive relationship found in Volleyball (r-0.61), Basketball (r- 0.89) and High jump (r- 0.84) University level players between power and arm swing of vertical jump performance.

 

4. DISCUSSION:

The purpose of the study was to determined the effect of arm swing on vertical jump performance. Using an arm swing when performing a counter movement vertical jump has enhanced the performance by increasing the height of the centre of mass at take off. The increased in height of centre of mass at take off (5.75cm) is due to the influence of arm position on the location of centre of mass.

 

The studies have reported that increased in work output and ground reaction force occurred by using without arm swing and arm swing Chengk et al.  (2008). In the present study jump height increased with using arm swing.

 

Ziv and Lidor (2010) have been reported that increased jump height in centre of mass during arm swing. With using centre of mass the contractile components store and release energy during eccentric and them concentric phase of jump. Some studies investigated the effect of arm swing and have seen an enhancement in ground reaction force and need impulse. The arm swing can raise the energy stored and displacement of centre of mass and so the enhancement occurs in time for transformation of energy or flight time. Arampatzis et al. (2001) have reported that by increasing the rate of force change during jumps the contact time after landing becomes shorter. In the present study there was significant difference in between the powers.

 

Vertical jump height was 8.34% higher with arm swing than without arm swing, which indicated that using the arm swing was highly effective in enhancing the jumping performance in these three groups. Several previous studies (Felther et. al. 1999; Shetty and Ethyre 1989, Harmar et.al. 1990, lees et. al.2004) found that the arm swing increased the (centre of mass) vertical jump height between 15 and 24% where as in the present study the increased was 8.34% this difference could be due to the subject variance.

 

The arm swing has a positive effect on CMVJ performance when the arms move upward (Lees and Barton, 1996; Lees et al., 1996, 2004a) or generally in the jump direction (Hara et al., 2008). The key factor for a positive contribution of the arm swing to jump height was prolonged duration of the time of acceleration, which led to longer duration of force acting in the direction of the jump and therefore to a higher value of initial acceleration of elite volleyball players. 

 

5. CONCLUSIONS:

From the result of the study the following conclusion are drown.

1.     Arm swing positively effect on the vertical jump performance for Volleyball Players, Basketball Players and Jumpers.

2.     Arm swing positively effect to increase the power which in turn help to increase the jumping height for Volleyball Players, Basketball Players and Jumpers.

3.     It also concluded that there is positive relationship between power and with arm swing in vertical jump performance.

 

6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The study was supported by department of Physical Education, Jadavpur University, West Bengal, India. And also acknowledge the players of Jadavpur University.

 

7. REFERENCE:

1.      Babi Ā et al. (2007) “Vertical Jump: Biomechanical Analysis and Simulation Study” Institute Slovenia Humanoid Robots, New Developments, Book edited by: Armando Carlos de PinaFilho ISBN 978-3-902613-02-8, pp.582, I-Tech, Vienna, Austria, June 2007.

2.      BabiĀ, J.; KarĀnik, T. and Bajd, T. (2001). Stability analysis of four-point walking, Gait and Posture, 14, 56-60

3.      Clansey A, Lees A (2010) Changes in lower limb joint range of motion on countermovement vertical jumping. International conference of biomechanics in sports.

4.      Caulley Mc ,Cormie P et al.(2007) Mechanical efficiency  during  repetitive  vertical jumping. Eur J Appl Physiol.101(1):115-23.

5.      Frantisek V., et al.(2016) effect of arm swing on countermovement vertical jump performance in elite volleyball players. J Hum Kinet. 2016 Dec 1;53:41-50

6.      G.G. Rodrigo et al.(2014) Effect of squat depth  on  performance  and biomechanical parameters of countermovement vertical jump. RBCDH.

7.      Hara M et al.(2008) A comparison of the mechanical effect of arm swing and countermovement  on  the  lower  extremities  in  vertical  jumping.  Hum  Mov   Sci. 2008Aug;27(4):636-48.

8.      K.B Cheng and Others (2008). The mechanisms that enable arm motion to enhance vertical jump performance-asimulation study. J. Biomech. 2008;41(9):1847-54.

9.      Kucharska, Rutkowska- Alicja ( 1998) Take-off structure and touch down loads during landing in selected rhythmic sport gymnastics jumps.

10.   Leite W.( 2016) Biomechanical analysis of running in the high jump.

11.   Lees A., Vanrenterghem J., De ClercqD..(2004a) Understanding how an arm swing enhances performance in the vertical jump. J Biomech. 2004a;37:1929-1940. [PubMed ][Google Scholar].

12.   Lander R William et al. (1996) A biomechanical analysis of the vertical jump and three modified plyometric depth jumps. Journal of strength and conditioning research volume-10.

13.   Mccaulley Go, Cormie P, (2007) Mechanical efficiency during repetitive vertical jumping. Eur J ApplPhysiol. Nicholas P Linthorichs (2001) Analysis of standing vertical jumps using a force platform.

14.   Struzik A et al.( 2014) Biomechanical analysis of the jump shot in basketball. journal of human kinetics 42:73-79

15.   ShadmehraAzadeh et al.(2016) Effect of countermovement and arm swing on vertical stiffness and jumpperformance.

16.   Schoenecker J et al. (2007) Optimal angle of knee flexion for maximal vertical jump in division iii collegiateathletes.

17.   Vanezis A et al.(2007) A biomechanical analysis of good and poor performers of  the vertical jump. journal ergonomics volume-48 pages 1594-1603.

18.   Vint and Hinrichs (1996) Differences between one-foot  and  two-foot  vertical  jump performances. Journal of applied biomechanics 12(3):338-358.

19.   Vaverkafrantisek et al.(2016) effect of an arm swing on countermovement vertical jump performance in elite Volleyball players.J Hum Kinet. 2016dec1;53: 41–50.

20.   Wu Lan Wen et al. (2003) Biomechanical analysis of the standing long jump. Biomed engappl basis comm, 15:186-192.

 

 

Received on 17.08.2021         Modified on 11.09.2021

Accepted on 14.10.2021      ©AandV Publications All right reserved

Res.  J. Humanities and Social Sciences. 2021; 12(4):209-214.

DOI: 10.52711/2321-5828.2021.00036