Author(s): Mohad Amin Sofi


DOI: Not Available

Address: Mohad Amin Sofi*
Ph. D Scholar, Jamia Millia Islamia, Central University, New Delhi
*Corresponding Author:

Published In:   Volume - 3,      Issue - 4,     Year - 2012

This paper aims at exploring the area under different agricultural crops and their production of Kashmir valley under Dogras. It throws light upon the area under rice, wheat, maize, barley, cotton and tobacco from 1891-1958.The paper makes it clear that year by year land under above cited crops increased owing to increasing pressure of population on land. It also informs us about the average yield of per kharwar of land (one kharwar of land equivalent to thirty two canals of land and one kharwar of crop equivalent to eighty kgs crop).The paper clarifies that there was a fluctuation of yields year by year owing to low cropping intensity, low use of fertilizers and lack of sufficient mechanization, poor economic status of large number of farmers etc.It also throws light upon the yield of said crops in totality were low than the existed potential of land. When we compare the yield of agricultural crops under Dogras with the present times we find the present yield is five times more than that of Dogras. It clearly indicates that the increasing yield of agricultural crops due to advancement of agricultural technology, high use of fertilizers and manures and agricultural operations are carefully timed. During the Dogra regime land distribution in Kashmir was highly defective and there were wide disparities in the distribution of land in spite of ceiling of the land settlement as the absentee landlordism was still in existence and even the surplus land was not properly distributed among the landless and small farmers who were actual tillers of land. The valley of Kashmir because of its physical character remained by and large aloof from the rest of the world including India. The system of land cultivation and the implements used in agriculture were somewhat different from that use in elsewhere. The plough used was very primitive. The paper reflects the nature of the agrarian economy of the valley was not developed during the dogra regime. The paper is based on statistical data with graph of each data. One can understand the agrarian status of Kashmir valley by sighting the graph under Dogras.

Cite this article:
Mohad Amin Sofi. Area under different crops and their production in Kashmir valley under Dogras(1846-1947 A.D.). Research J. Humanities and Social Sciences. 3(4): October-December, 2012, 409-421.

Mohad Amin Sofi. Area under different crops and their production in Kashmir valley under Dogras(1846-1947 A.D.). Research J. Humanities and Social Sciences. 3(4): October-December, 2012, 409-421.   Available on:

1.       A.N. Raina, geography of Jammu and Kashmir state, P.1-24.
2.       W. R . Lawrence, valley of Kashmir, P-159-61
3.       Gazetteer of Kashmir and Ladakh , P-61-63
4.       R.L. Hangloo, Agrarian system of Kashmir, L. Hangloo, Agrarian system of Kashmir, p-20.
5.       F. Young husband, Kashmir, Edinburg, P-202,1909,
6.       P.N.K. Bamazai, socio- economic history, P-158-159
7.       W. R. Lawrence, the Kashmir gazette, Vol. I, P-240.
8.       Agricultural statistic of India 1912-13, Vol II p . 82
9.       Agricultural statistic of India 1927-28, Vol II p . 36.
10.     Agricultural statistic of India 1929-30 Vol. II, p. 36..
11.     Agricultural statistic of India  1930-31, Vol. II,p.186
12.     Agricultural statistic of India 1931-32, Vol. II,p.186
13.     Agricultural statistic of India,1935-36,Vol. II,p.170
14.     Agricultural statistic of India, 1936-37, Vol.II, P.170.
15.     Agricultural statistic of India 1938-39, Vol. II,p.179
16.     Agricultural statistic of India Vol. 1-2, P-86, 6-8,124, 1943-44, 1946-47.
17.     Agricultural statistic of India Vol. 2, P-542, 1951-52.
18.     Land utilization statistics status, P-22, All India.
19.     Area, production and average yield per acre of principal crops in India 1949-1950 to 1957-1958 issued by economic  and statistical advisor to the Govt. of India, ministry of food and agricultural .
20.     Statistical supplement to the agricultural situation in India , march 1956.
21.     Jammu and Kashmir budget for 1970-71, P-III , with detailed estimates of revenue and expenditure.
22.     Budget estimates of recipes for the year 1955-56, principal heads of revenue, P-II , J&K budget.
23.     Estimates of area and yield of principal crops in undivided India; P-22-23, 1936-37, to 1945-46.
24.     Area and yield, principal crops in India, 1891-93 to 1907-08.
25.     Foreign department, secret correspondence, March 31, 1848, files no. 66-77. National Archives of India.
26.     Ab. Rashid khandy , the sikha rule in Kashmir, P-155.
27.     Foreign department secret 1872, September, P-59.National Archives of India.
28.     Assessment report of sri partapsing pora, P-20, 1920.
29.     W.R. Lawrence, confidential report on the position of cultivating class, national archives of India.
30.     Gwasha , Lal koul, historical survey, Kashmir through the ages, P-99-109.
31.     Imperial gazetter of India, Vol. -XV, P-119.
32.     Foreign and political feb 1874, no. 271-278.S

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (RJHSS) is an international, peer-reviewed journal, correspondence in the fields of arts, commerce and social sciences....... Read more >>>

RNI: Not Available                     
DOI: 10.5958/2321-5828 

Recent Articles