In the past few years, many settlements in the high Himalayan region have witnessed morphological and functional change. These changes or transformations are a manifestation of livelihood diversification in these areas. The emerging (new) opportunities in remote rural areas have brought changes in the socioeconomic conditions of the people living therein. The new developments were accompanied by a functional change of isolated mountain settlements. As a result, these settlements have got transformed into multifunctional areas. All these changes are reflected in the spatial variations and accompanied changes in settlement characteristics.
The aim of this research is to identify the functional changes in remote mountain villages. The study area for this research is an isolated mountain valley in the high Himalayan region. It is a remote area of Uttarkashi, India. This area is regarded as a marginal region. The marginality of the area is the product of spatial isolation and remoteness. However, some of the settlements of this region have witnessed profound changes in the recent past. Different signs of change in settlement characteristics (morphological and functional change) have been observed in these mountain villages. There have been changes in the nature of agriculture in some of these settlements. These changes have been accompanied by a change in land use and the morphological elements of the villages. Changes in social infrastructure and standards of living are also important signs of change.
This research presents a study of changes in settlement characteristics (morphological and functional change) in one of the villages of this remote mountainous area. It can be interpreted as an illustration of the development of multifunctional rural settlements in a marginal area. There is a need to capture the current processes of transformation. It may offer an essential clue for rural revitalization in the high mountain areas.
Cite this article:
D. K. Shahi. Morphological and Functional Change of Rural Settlements in the High Himalayan Region: A Case Study of Arakot, Uttarkashi. Research Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2022;13(1):45-0. doi: 10.52711/2321-5828.2022.00008
D. K. Shahi. Morphological and Functional Change of Rural Settlements in the High Himalayan Region: A Case Study of Arakot, Uttarkashi. Research Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 2022;13(1):45-0. doi: 10.52711/2321-5828.2022.00008 Available on: https://www.rjhssonline.com/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-13-1-8
1. Bayram Ebadi, Ghoreshi, M. And Molaei, N., 2016. Process Analysis of Functional Changes of Rural Settlements in Southwestern of Tehran Metropolis. Journal of Studies of Human Settlements Planning, 10 (33), ISSN 2538 5968
2. Bayram Ebadi, Md. Baset Ghoreishi and Nasrollah Molaei Hashjin, 2015, Factors Affecting Functional Changes of Rural Settlements in Southwestern of Tehran in the Post-Islamic Revolution in Iran, Journal of Applied Sciences, Volume: 15, Issue: 7 DOI: 10.3923/jas.2015.982.990
3. Berdegue, J. A., Bebbington, A. And T. Rosada, 2014, The rural transformation. In: B. Currie Alder, R. Kanbur, D. M. Malone and R. Medhora. International Development. Ideas, experience, and prospects. Oxford University Press
4. Bogdanov, N. And Vasiljevic, Z., 2011, Role of Agriculture and Multifunctional Rural Development in Serbia. Applied Studies in Agribusiness and Commerce, 5(1-2), https://doi.org/10.19041/APSTRACT/2011/1-2/6
5. Dominik Sikorski, Agnieszka Latocha, Robert Szmytkie, Katarzyna Kajdanek, Paulina Miodońska, Przemysław Tomczak, 2020, Functional changes in peripheral mountainous areas in east central Europe between 2004 and 2016 as an aspect of rural revival; Kłodzko County case study, Applied Geography, Volume 122, 102223, ISSN 0143-6228, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeog.2020.102223.
6. Fred Dahms and Janine mccomb, 1999, ‘Counterurbanization’, interaction and functional change in a rural amenity area — A Canadian example, Journal of Rural Studies, Volume 15, Issue 2, ISSN 0743-0167, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0743-0167(98)00056-4.
7. Gannon A. 1994, Rural tourism as a factor in rural community economic development for economies in transition. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Vol. 2, No. 1-2, ISSN 0966-9582.
8. Gudrun Hohl, 1960, On the Changes in Function and Their Geographic-Phenomenological Consequences in the Rural Central Settlements in Franconia, Geografiska Annaler Vol. 42, No. 4, Advance and Retreat of Rural Settlement: Papers of the Siljan Symposium at the xixth International Geographical Congress (1960), https://doi.org/10.2307/520298
9. Guin, Debarshi, 2018, From large villages to small towns: A study of rural transformation in new census towns, India, International Journal of Rural Management 14.2, ISSN: 0973-0052. Online ISSN: 0973-0680
10. Holmes J., 2012. Cape York Peninsula, Australia: A frontier region undergoing a multifunctional transition with indigenous engagement. Journal of Rural Studies. 28, ISSN 0743-0167
11. Holmes, J. (2006). Impulses towards a multifunctional transition in rural Australia: Gaps in the research agenda. Journal of Rural Studies, 22, ISSN 0743-0167
12. Koustab Majumdar, 2020, Rural Transformation in India: Deagrarianization and the Transition from a Farming to Non-farming Economy, Journal of Developing Societies, https://doi.org/10.1177/0169796X20912631
13. Niedzielski, Eugeniusz, 2015, Functions of Rural Areas and Their Development, Problems of Agricultural Economics Nr. 2 https://ssrn.com/abstract=2853374
14. Sebastian Goraj, Magdalena Nowak, Marta Gwiazdzinska 2014, Functional Changes in Rural Areas in North-Eastern Poland, Research for Rural Development, Volume 2, ISSN 1691-4031 (print), ISSN 2255-923X (online)
15. Seda Kundak, Handan Turkoglu and Tuzin Baycan, 2011, Rural changes: Their types and effects on rural capital, 51st Congress of the European Regional Science Association, Barcelona, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254457519
16. Tamara Lukic, Tanja Armenski, Svetlana Vukosav, Nevena Curcic, 2012, The Functional Transformation of Settlements in Central Serbia, Forum geographic, Studii și cercetari de geografie și protecția mediului, Volume XI, Issue 1, http://dx.doi.org/10.5775/fg.2067-4635.2012.079.i
17. Tomasz Figlus, 2020, Process of Incorporation and Morphological Transformations of Rural Settlement Patterns in the Context of Urban Development: The Case Study of Lodz, QUAESTIONES GEOGRAPHICAE 39(2), ISSN 0137-477X, eissn 2081-6383, doi: 10.2478/quageo-2020-0019
18. Vahid Riahi, Sedigheh Karaminasab, Maghsood Bayat, 2018, Factors affecting structural - functional changes in rural settlements (case study: Kurdian district - city of Jahrom), Rural Development Strategies, Volume 5, Issue 2, ISSN 2383-2657, DOI 10.22048/RDSJ.2018.80666.1642