This paper examines continuing patterns of gender inequality in society, more specifically gender inequality in formal education, as education is potentially a site for empowerment. Studies have demonstrated that gender-bias and gender stereotypes in written texts have deleterious effect for female students leading to feelings of exclusion, devaluation and lowered expectations. This research endeavours to analyse gender portrayal in school textbooks brought out by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) and used at the level of senior secondary education. A content analysis, with the help of an evaluation tool developed by the Department of Women’s Studies, NCERT, has been undertaken of the NCERT political science textbook of class XI. The findings highlight overtly gendered representations in the textbook, thus stressing the need for a rigorous feminist critique of mainstream disciplinary knowledge to address concerns and issues of gender in the structures and processes of formal education.
Cite this article:
Smita Parashar, Smriti Singh. Evaluating Gender Representation in NCERT Textbooks: A Content Analysis. Res. J. Humanities and Social Sciences. 2020; 11(4):323-329. doi: 10.5958/2321-5828.2020.00051.0
Smita Parashar, Smriti Singh. Evaluating Gender Representation in NCERT Textbooks: A Content Analysis. Res. J. Humanities and Social Sciences. 2020; 11(4):323-329. doi: 10.5958/2321-5828.2020.00051.0 Available on: https://www.rjhssonline.com/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2020-11-4-10
1. Acker, S. (1987). Feminist theory and the study of gender and education. International Review of Education/ Internationale Zeitschrift fur Erziehungswissenschaft/ Revue Internationale de l’Education, 33(4), 419-435. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/3444244
2. Amruthraj, R. M. (2012). Gender discrimination in the primary school English language textbooks in Tamil Nadu. The Primary Teacher, 37 (1& 2), 77-101.
3. Ballantine, J. H., and Spade, J. Z. (Eds). (2008). Schools and Society: A sociological approach to education (3rd ed.). Sage.
4. Ballantine, J. H., and Spade, J. Z. (Eds.). (2015). Schools and Society: A sociological approach to education (5th ed.). Sage.
5. Ballantine, J. H., and Hammack, F. M. (2016). The Sociology of education: Asystematic analysis (7th ed.). Routledge.
6. Bhog, D. (2002). Gender and curriculum. Economic and Political Weekly, 37(17), 1638-1642.
7. Bhog, D., and Ghose, M. (2014). Writing gender in: Reflections on writing middle- school political science textbooks in India. Gender and Development, 22(1), 49-62.
8. Biesta, G. J. J. (2010). On the weakness of education. In D. Kerdeman et al. (Eds.), Philosophy of Education 2009 (pp. 354-362). Philosophy of Education Society.
9. Blumberg, L. R. (2007). Gender bias in textbooks: A hidden obstacle to educational equality in education. UNESCO “Paper commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2008, Education for All by 2015: will we make it. UNESCO
10. Blumberg, R. L. (2008). The invisible obstacle to educational equality: gender bias in textbooks. Prospects, 38, 345-361. doi: 10.1007/s11125-009-9086-1
11. Burns, D., and Chantler, K. (2011). Feminist methodologies. In B. Somekh, and C. Lewin (Eds.), Theory and methods in social research (2nd ed., pp. 70-77). Sage.
12. Central Advisory Board of Education Committee. (2005). Regulatory mechanisms for textbooks and parallel textbooks taught in schools outside the government system. Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India.
13. Chaftez, J. S. (2006). Preface. In J. S. Chaftez (Ed.), Handbook of the sociology of gender. (pp. vii-ix). Springer.
14. Connell, R.W., & Pearse, R. (2015). Gender: In world perspective (3rd ed.). Polity Press.
15. Davies, B., and Gannon, C. (2011). Feminism/ post-structuralism. In B. Somekh, and C. Lewin (Eds). Theory and methods in social research (2nd ed., pp. 312-320). Sage.
16. Dawar, T., and Anand, S. (2017). Gender bias in textbooks across the world. International Journal of Applied Home Science, 4 (3& 4), 224-235.
17. Department of Education. (1986). National policy on education1986. Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India.
18. Department of Education. (1992). Programme of action 1992. Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India.
19. Ellis, J. (2002). Strengthening subservience: Gender bias in West Bengal school textbooks. Manushi, 133, 23-24.
20. Evans, L., and Davies, K. (2000). No sissy boys here: A content analysis of the representation of masculinity in elementary school reading textbooks. Sex Roles, 3(42), 255-270.
21. Giddens, A. (2009). Sociology (6th ed.). Polity Press.
22. Jaggar, A. M. (1983). Feminist politics and human nature. Rowman and Littlefield.
23. Kalia, N. N. (1986). Women and sexism: Language of Indian school textbooks. Economic and Political Weekly, 21(18), 794-797.
24. Kereszty, O. (2009). Gender in textbooks. Practice and Theory in Systems of Education, 4(2), 1-7.
25. Krippendorff, K. (2013). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology (3rd ed.). Sage.
26. Lindsey, L, L. (2015). Gender roles: A Sociological Perspective (6th ed.). Routledge.
27. Maynard, M. (1995). Beyond the ‘big three’: the development of feminist theory into the 1990s. Women’s History Review, 4(3), 259-281.https://doi.org/10.1080/09612029500200089
28. Mayring, P. (2014). Qualitative content analysis: theoretical foundation, basicprocedures and software solution. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-395173
29. Nambissan, G.B. (2005). Integrating gender concerns. Changing English, 12(2), 191-199.
30. National Council of Educational Research and Training. (2005). National CurriculumFramework. Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India.
31. National Council of Educational Research and Training. (2006). National focus group ongender issues in education [Policy statement]. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ncert.nic.in/new_ ncert/ncert/rightside/links/pdf/focus_group/gender_issues_in_education.pdf
32. Nye, A. (1988). Feminist theory and the philosophies of man. Routledge.
33. Pandey, K. (2006). Gender issues and Indian textbooks. InÉric Bruillard, BenteAamotsbakken, Susanne V. Knudsen, & Mike Horsley (Eds.), Caught in the Web or Lost in the Textbook? (pp.201- 206). Paris Jouve.
34. Prasad, B.V.R. (2013). The absence of the domestic in the NCERT textbook ‘Marigold’ for first standard students. International Journal of English Literature, Language and Skills, 1(4), 49-52.
35. Sowell, S. P. (2004). Doing gender/ teaching science: A feministpoststructuralanalysis of middle school science teacher’s identity negotiations [Doctoral dissertation, Florida
36. State University]. DigiNole: FSU’s Digital Library.
38. Srivastava, Y. (2018, January 26). These are the 15 women who helped draft the Indian Constitution. FII.https:// feminisminindia.com/2018/01/26/15-women-draft-indian-constitution/
39. Ridgeway, C. L. (2011). Framed by gender: How gender inequality persists in modern world (1st ed.). Oxford University Press.
40. Spade, J. Z., and Valentine, C. G. (2011). Introduction. In J. Z. Spade, & C. G. Valentine (Eds.), The kaleidoscope of gender: Prisms, patterns, and possibilities (3rd ed., pp. xiii-xxii). Pine Forge Press.
41. Srivastava, G. (2016). Analysis of the textbooks of Assam, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Odisha, Maharashtra, Manipur and Rajasthan: An overall report. Department of Gender Studies, National Council of Educational Research and Training. http://www.ncert.nic.in/departments/nie/ dws/pdf/overallreportDGS_24_8_17.pdf
42. Srivastava, G. (2014). Gender concerns in education. Retrieved from http://www.ncert.nic.in/departments/nie/dse/activities/ advisory_board/PDF/Genderconcerns.pdf
43. Stromquist, N. P. (1990). Gender inequality in education: Accounting for women’s subordination. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 11(2), 137-153. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/1392827
44. Stromquist, N. P. (2007). The gender socialization process in schools: A cross-national comparison. “Paper commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2008, Education for All by 2015: will we make it? UNESCO firstname.lastname@example.org
45. Unterhalter, E. (2007). Gender, schooling, and global social justice (1st ed.). Routledge.
46. Wimmer, R. D., and Dominick, J. R. (2009). Mass media research processes, approaches, andapplications (10th ed.). Cengage Learning.