Contrary to the argument that increased modernization and interactions among people across nations unleashed by the forces of globalization would dampen the inclination among people to cling to their national, sub-national and ethnic identities, the article argues that modernity has not replaced tradition as the latter enjoys mass appeal not only because it provides a sense of rootedness amidst economic, political and social changes, it has also scientific and rational elements (the core elements of modernity) within it. Therefore, modern states provide sufficient space for construction of identities and the article discusses construction of identities in Bhutan in the larger context of evolving modernity.
Cite this article:
Manoj Kumar Mishra. Construction of Identities in Bhutan. Res. J. Humanities and Social Sciences. 2021; 12(1):11-15. doi: 10.5958/2321-5828.2021.00002.4
Manoj Kumar Mishra. Construction of Identities in Bhutan. Res. J. Humanities and Social Sciences. 2021; 12(1):11-15. doi: 10.5958/2321-5828.2021.00002.4 Available on: https://www.rjhssonline.com/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2021-12-1-2
1. Freedom in the World, Bhutan, Freedom House, https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2019/bhutan, 2019
2. For details see Rose, L. E. The Politics of Bhutan, Cornell University Press, London, 1977.
3. For details see Belfiglio, J. V. “The Structure of National Law-Making Authority in Bhutan”, Asian Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1974.
4. See Ura, K. “Perceptions of Security”, Journal of Bhutan Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2001.
5. See Hutt. M. “Unadmitted Histories: The lives of Dalchan and Garjaman Gurung”, European Bulletin of Himalayan Research, 2000.
6. For details see Hutt. M. Unbecoming Citizens: Culture, Nationhood, and the flight of Refugees from Bhutan, 2003, Oxford University Press, London.
7. T. Mathou. T. “The politics of Bhutan: Change in Continuity”, Journal of Bhutan Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2000, p. 255.
8. Mishra, M.K. “Interrogating Naturalness of National Identity”, Fudan Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 3, 2020, pp. 319-310.
9. For details see Tashi, P. K. “The Role of Buddhism in Achieving Gross National Happiness” In Karma Ura and Karma Galay eds. Gross National Happiness and Development, Bhutan: The Centre for Bhutan Studies, 2004.